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Full text of "Intertidal macrophytes of Santa Cruz Island, California"

BRITISH MUSEUM 
(KAIOSAl HISrOKY) 

18NOV1V9J 



PURCHASED 
ANY LIBRARY 



INTERTIDAL MACROPHYTES 

of 
SANTA CRUZ ISLAND, CALIFORNIA 

Kirk Apt, Carla D'Antonio, 
James Crisp, and Joyce Gauvain 




582.26 
(265) 

& 

APT 



The Herbarium 

Department of Biological Sciences, 

University of California, Santa Barbara 

Publication Number 6 

1988 



r 



Cover: A view northward from vicinity of Fraser Point, west end of Santa Cruz Island. 






BRITISH MUSEUM 
(NATURAL HISTORY) 

18 NOV 19 VI 

PURCHASED 
TANY LIBRARY 



INTERTIDAL MACROPHYTES 

Of 

SANTA CRUZ ISLAND, 

CALIFORNIA 



Kirk Apt, Carla DAntonio, 
James Crisp, and Joyce Gauvain 



$6/. £<><0 ^3.5 

£lU\ mr< 

1 

The Herbarium 

Department of Biological Sciences 

University of California, Santa Barbara 

Publication Number 6 

1988 



This publication series is issued at irregular intervals from the Herbarium, Department of 
Biological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106. 



EDITOR - Wayne R. Ferren, Jr. 

Curator of the Herbarium 

ASSOCIATE 

EDITOR - J. Robert Haller 

Associate Professor of Botany 
Director of the Herbarium 



(c) Copyright 1988 by the Regents of the University of California. 



FOREWORD 

Manuscripts accepted for presentation in the Publication Series of 
the Herbarium, Department of Biological Sciences, University of 
California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), include primarily those with a 
floristic emphasis and those for which voucher specimens are deposited at 
UCSB. This endeavor is consistent with the goals of the UCSB Herbarium, 
summarized as follows: 1) to maintain a botanical collections 
repository; 2) to function as a research facility within the Department 
of Biological Sciences; 3) to provide educational programs; and 4) to 
provide botanical services. 

UCSB Herbarium Publication Number 6, Intertidal Macrophytes of Santa 
Cruz Island , Cal ifornia , is a product of research conducted by herbarium 
associates. The field work was funded by the University of California 
Natural Reserve System (NRS), and received logistical and staff support 
from the System's Santa Cruz Island Reserve (SCIR). This publication 
combines original research and compilation of existing information. It 
provides the most complete evaluation of intertidal macrophytes for the 
California Islands to date, especially for Santa Cruz Island. The 
authors are confident that this work will constitute a sound foundation 
for future research. 

The NRS is a statewide system of habitat reserves administered by 
the University of California. It's purpose is to maintain examples of 
California's ecological diversity to be used for research or teaching. 
The SCIR (formerly Channel Islands Field Station, 1966-1976) was 
organized to provide access, assistance, and facilities to researchers 
and classes for studies on the archaeology, marine and terrestrial 
biology, geography, and geology of Santa Cruz Island. The Reserve Field 
Station, located centrally on Santa Cruz Island, continues to serve 
researchers and classes from the University of California, and groups 
from other institutions who are investigating island phenomena. The 
primary purpose of this field station has been to provide room and board 
facilities, as well as transportation about and around the island (land 



in 



and nearby waters). Modest working space, lab equipment, reference 
collections, and 1 ibrary materials are available. 

The Santa Cruz Island Reserve is operated under a lease agreement 
with The Nature Conservancy (TNC). Similar cooperative agreements are in 
effect between TNC and NRS throughout the state. The Nature Conservancy 
is an international membership organization committed to the global 
preservation of natural diversity. Its mission is to find, protect and 
maintain the best examples of communities, ecosystems and endangered 
species in the natural world. To date the Conservancy and its members 
have been responsible for the protection of nearly three million acres in 
fifty states, Canada, Latin America, and the Caribbean. While some areas 
are transferred for management to other conservation groups, both public 
and private, the Conservancy owns and manages some nine hundred 
preserves—the largest privately owned nature preserve system in the 
world. 

The Nature Conservancy acquired a partial interest in Santa Cruz 
Island in 1978 and assumed full ownership for the western 90% of Santa 
Cruz Island in 1987. The Conservancy's primary goal for the island is to 
preserve and, where possible, restore its unique biological diversity. 

The NRS periodically publishes or supports documents about its 
reserves. Intertidal Macrophytes of Santa Cruz Island , California is NRS 
Contribution No. 14, and Santa Cruz Island Reserve Contribution No. 1. 



Wayne R. Ferren, Jr. 
Curator of the Herbarium 



IV 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Foreword i i i 

List of Figures vi 

List of Tables vi i 

The Intertidal Macrophytes 1 

Introduction 3 

Materials and Methods 5 

Site Descriptions 7 

West Point 7 

Forney's Cove 8 

University Trailer 9 

Sauces 11 

Laguna 12 

Coches Prietos 12 

Potato Harbor 13 

Cave Entrance 14 

China Harbor 14 

Pel ican Bay 16 

PI att ' s Harbor 16 

Fern Cave 17 

Analysis of the Inventories 18 

Numerical Analysis of Sites 27 

Summary and Conclusions 32 

Recommendations 33 

Acknowl edgments 34 

Literature Cited 35 

Appendices 37 

I. Annotated Catalogue of the Intertidal Macrophytes 39 

II. Selected Marine Algae from Santa Cruz Island 51 

III. Checklist of Marine Macrophytes Reported from 

Santa Cruz Island 73 



LIST OF FIGURES 

la. Location of Santa Cruz Island 4 

lb. Location of Intertidal Sites 4 

2. University Trailer Site 10 

3. Sauces Site 10 

4. Potato Harbor Site 15 

5. China Harbor Site 15 

6. Dendrogram from Twinspan Analysis 28 

7. DECORANA Ordination Analysis 29 

8. DECORANA Ordination Analysis 29 

9. Antithamnion defectum 52 

10. Cal 1 ithamnion rupicolum 52 

11. Centrocerus clavulatum 54 

12. Ceramium californicum 54 

13. Ceramium caudatum 56 

14. Ceramium eatonianum 56 

1 5 . Ectocarpus parvus 58 

16. Erythrotrichia sp 58 

17. Hincksia granulosa 60 

18. Gymnothamnion elegans 60 

19. PI atythamnion recurvatum 62 

20 . Pleonosporium vancouverianum 62 

21. Polysiphonia hendryi 64 

22 . Polysiphonia pacif ica 64 

23 . Polysiphonia paniculata 66 

24. Polysiphonia scopulorum var. v i 1 1 urn 66 

25. Pterochondria woodii 68 

26. Pterosiphonia dendroidea 68 

2 7 . Sphacelaria didichotoma 70 

28. Unidentified alga 70 



VI 



LIST OF TABLES 

1. General Characteristics Of Sites Surveyed For Intertidal 

Macroflora During This Study 8 

2. Distribution And Relative Abundance Of Intertidal Macrophytes 

At The Sites Sampled On Santa Cruz Island 19 

3. Species Not Recorded Previously In Published Records Of Santa 

Cruz Isl and Marine Macrophytes 24 

4. Species Richness At Sites Surveyed During This Study 25 

5. Number Of Species Occurring At Only One Site Or Multiple Sites.. 25 

6. Number Of Unique Species Occurring At Each Site 31 



VII 



THE 

INTERTIDAL 

MACROPHYTES 




.e^t""" 






Wew southeastward 
from Coches Prietos, 
Santa Cruz Island. 



INTRODUCTION 

The Northern Channel Islands, off the coast of southern California, 
are a unique resource for the study of marine organisms because these 
islands are near Point Conception (34°27'N), an area that has long been 
recognized as an important distributional boundary between northern cold- 
temperate and southern warm-temperate regions (see Murray et al . 1980 
for a review). Portions of the mainland coastline of this region are 
influenced heavily by urban and oil development. The islands of the 
region, however, contain the most undisturbed sections of coastline 
remaining in southern California (Murray et al . 1980). The recent 
acquisition of several of the islands by the National Park Service and 
The Nature Conservancy has insured the protection of these highly 
important coastlines and habitats. 

In spite of the unique location and pristine condition of the 
Northern Channel Islands, there have been few thorough studies of their 
intertidal biota. Notable exceptions include Littler (1977, 1978, 1979, 
1980) and Murray et al . (1980). Such surveys are important because they 
provide baseline information for the evaluation of human impacts on the 
environment, and of changes that may result from climatic anomalies such 
as El Nino, a periodic phenomenon with unusually high water 
temperatures. 

Santa Cruz Island is centrally located within the Northern Channel 
Islands (Fig. 1A) and is thought to be influenced by both cold and warm 
water currents (Cockerel I 1939, Neushul et al . 1967, Seapy and Littler 
1980, and Murray et al . 1980). The island also is large (249 km 2 , 30 km 
in length) and geologically, topographically, and microcl imatical ly 
diverse. Its intertidal marine flora is known incompletely and has been 
surveyed extensively only at two sites: Prisoners' Harbor and Willows 
Anchorage (Littler 1977, 1978, 1979). Santa Cruz Island is used exten- 
sively by researchers and classes, and is included in the Natural Reserve 
System of the University of California. 



40° 



Pacific Ocean 



35° 



San 
Miguel I. 



Santa Cruz I. 





Santa Rosa I. 




Anacapa I. 



B 


s 


a n t a 


Barbara C h 


a n n e I 




West -*T* — ^_ 

Point ( 






Fern 

Cave Piatt's 
i Harbor 
~-^ N ^~^\ v J Pelicar 
^— *V Bay 

Y 

1 s ' a n d 


Cave 


Potato 

Harbor i 


Forney's^kV 
Cove f s. 

University 
Trailer 

Sauces — M 




'•:. 


t Entrance 

V 

China S 
Harbor / 


i— 












N 






/ 
Laguna 


Coches 
Prietos 






, 






P fl 


c i f i c c e a 


n 


2 4 Km 
i i i 





Figure 1. A. Location of Santa Cruz Island; B. Location of intertidal sites surveyed for marine 
macrophyte species. 



This study provides an in-depth analysis of the intertidal marine 
macrophytes, both algae and marine angiosperms, of Santa Cruz Island with 
an accompanying collection of voucher specimens from numerous, diverse 
sites on the Island. The resulting flora was evaluated in terms of its 
relationship to northern and southern intertidal floras. Species lists 
from each site were compared for biogeographic patterns. This work also 
includes photographs and descriptions of some of the algae that are 
difficult to identify, and a compilation of all marine macrophytes 
reported from Santa Cruz Island. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

A series of study sites was chosen to represent different geographic 
regions of Santa Cruz Island. This series included ten major sites and 
two caves (Fig. IB) that characterized northern, western, and southern 
sections of coastline. The western and southern sites were approached by 
land, whereas the northern sites were reached by inflatable boat. The 
eastern portion of the island was not accessible. 

Our sites varied in the extent of intertidal habitats, rock type, 
abundance of abalone, and degree of exposure to ocean swell and are 
considered representative of Santa Cruz Island. A qualitative evaluation 
of these features was made at the time of sampling. We did not survey 
Prisoners' Harbor and Willows Anchorage, because these sites were 
surveyed intensively by Littler (1979). 

During the summers of 1985 and 1986, examination of each site was 
conducted by three or four individuals who searched a 30-100 m strip of 
coastline (topography permitting) for two to three hours during a minus 
low tide. Each investigator collected samples of all non-crustose 
species of algae encountered, and also recorded notes on the general 
abundance of each species. This method was effective in maximizing the 
number of taxa found. 

Upon returning to the Reserve Field Station, specimens were pressed 
or preserved in liquid as needed. Each species was placed into one of 



four categories based on its abundance at a site. They were listed as 
rare , if less than four specimens were seen by all investigators; 
occasional , if between four and twenty specimens were encountered; 
common , if the species was regularly encountered but did not occupy more 
than twenty-five percent cover in the zone where it occurred; and 
abundant , if the species was encountered regularly and occupied more than 
25% cover within its zone. 

Upon returning to the laboratory at UCSB, we reexamined all 
specimens to confirm field identifications. Specimens also were compared 
with those in the herbaria of Hopkins Marine Station at Monterey and the 
University of California at Berkeley. Taxonomically difficult specimens 
were sent to experts (Drs. I. Abbott, 0. Kapraun, and J. Norris) for 
verification. Nomenclature generally is consistent with Abbott and 
Hollenberg (1976), with exceptions treated in Abbott (1985), Druehl 
(1979), Gabrielson (1982), Guiry et al . (1984), Hawks and Scagel (1986), 
Huisman (1985), and Silva et al . (1987). 

Species lists for each site were entered into a database and 
analyzed using TWINSPAN and DECORANA, two multivariate techniques. 
TWINSPAN is a divisive technique that classifies units (i.e., sites) 
according to indicator species. It is used commonly in vegetation 
sampling (Goldsmith et al . 1986) and produces a table from which a 
dendrogram can be constructed. DECORANA is an ordination technique that 
arranges samples spatially along principal axes (constructed from the 
species composition data) to reflect their similarity. This technique 
was developed by Hill (1979) and also is used commonly for vegetation 
analyses. DECORANA analyses were conducted using both presence/absence 
data and a numerical or scaled approximation for our subjective frequency 
classifications. TWINSPAN analyses were conducted only on 
presence/absence data. 

For the purposes of interpreting trends in our data, we classified 
species as either northern, southern, or widely distributed according to 
records published in Abbott and Hollenberg (1976). We define a northern 
species as one that reaches its southern distributional limit in the 



region between Point Conception and the Mexican border. We define a 
southern species as one that is more typical of southern California and 
Mexican waters and reaches its northern limit in the region of Point 
Conception or southward. We define a widely distributed species as one 
that occurs throughout northern and southern California. 

SITE DESCRIPTIONS 

In the following section, we provide detailed descriptions of the 
physical and biotic characteristics of each study site. A summary of 
substrate type, topography, and abalone occurrence for the 10 sites and 
two caves is presented in Table 1. 

WEST POINT — This site occurs at the extreme northwest point of 
land on the island. The intertidal areas are located at the base of 
vertical cliffs 30-100 m high, and are exposed directly to ocean swells. 
Two nearby localities were sampled. The first consisted of a small cave 
about 100 m east of West Point, with large stable boulders 1-3 m in 
diameter present inside and outside of the cave. The other site was a 
small unnamed cove immediately south of West Point. The topography in 
the cove varied from a boulder beach at the back to near vertical walls 
with narrow shelves 1-3 m above the low waterline. The shelves contain 
several large tidepools, and the low intertidal zone was narrow because 
of the steep topography. 

No individual algal species occurred in high abundance at this site, 
and overall species richness was relatively low. The site contained 
unique species (e.g., Callithamnion pikeanum , Odonthalia floccosa ) that 
are discussed in more detail later. The high intertidal zone was 
characterized by the common occurrence of Porphyra perforata and 
Endocladia muricata , with occasional thai 1 i of Callithamnion pikeanum , 
Nemalion helminthoides , Mastocarpus papillatus , and Rhodoglossum aff ine . 
A number of tidepools occurred in the high intertidal and splash zones, 
which typically had Bryopsis corticulans and Ulva lobata present. 



Table 1. General Characteristics Of Sites Surveyed For Intertidal 
Macroflora During This Study. Locations are shown in Figure 1. Key: 
SCV-1 = Santa Cruz Island Volcanics (basalt with breccias). SCV-2 = 
S.C.I. Volcanics (andesite with breccias). SCV-3 = S.C.I. Volcanics 
(andesite with sandstones). VS = Volcanic conglomerates with sandstones. 
BV = Blanca Volcanics (breccias with boulder conglomerates and basaltic 
sills). MS = Monterey Formation shales. 



Site Name 



Rock Type 



Topography 



Abalone 



Forney's Cove 


SCV-1 


Reefs/Boulders 


Rare 


Univ. Trailer 


SCV-1 


Reefs 


Common 


Sauces 


VS 


Reefs/Boulders 


Absent 


Laguna 


BV 


Reefs 


Absent 


Coches Prietos 


BV 


Reefs 


Rare 


Potato Harbor 


MS 


Reefs/Boulders 


Occasional 


China Harbor 


MS 


Reefs/Boulders 


Common 


Pelican Bay 


SCV-3 


Reefs/Boulders 


Rare 


Piatt's Harbor 


SCV-2 


Boulders 


Common 


West Point 


SCV-2 


Reefs/Boulders 


Rare 


Fern Cave 


SCV-2 


Vertical Cliffs 


Absent 


Cave Entrance 


SCV-2 


Vertical Cliffs 


Absent 



The mid-intertidal was characterized by tufts of Coral 1 ina 
vancouveriensis and Gelidium coulteri , with occasional thai 1 i of Cod i urn 
fragile , Odonthalia floccosa , and Gigartina spp. The low-intertidal zone 
had the greatest richness and was dominated by Laminaria setchellii , 
Eisenia arborea , Bossiella spp., and Prionitis lanceolata . Other common 
algal species included Plocamium violaceum , Iridaea cordata , and 
Macrocystis pyrifera . 



FORNEY'S COVE--Forney's Cove is a large, protected anchorage 
immediately southeast of Fraser Point at the west end of the island. The 
area sampled was a long rocky point immediately adjacent to the west side 
of the beach. The point consisted of a rock shore with boulders, 
tidepools, and rock shelves that terminated in a large rock outcrop 



approximately 100 m from shore. The exposed horizontal intertidal area 
averaged about 15 m. There were numerous tidepools, many of which were 
lined with a thin layer of coarse sand. Rocks in the low intertidal zone 
often were buried in sand. Wave action was moderate in the outermost 
portion of the site, and fairly calm at the inner area. 

This site had a number of abundant algal species and a hi qh species 
richness, although it contained only two unique species. These were 
Nienburgia andersoniana and PI atyth amnion recurvatum . The common algal 
species of the high intertidal were Porphyra perforata , Mastocarpus 
papillatus , Endocladia muricata , Ulva californica , and Hesperophycus 
harveyanus . 

The mid-intertidal was characterized by an abundance of Gigartina 
canal icu lata , Coral lina vancouveriensis , and Pelvetia fastigiata . Other 
common species were Colpomenia sp., Gigartina leptorhynchos , and 
Centroceras clavulatum . 

The low-intertidal zone consisted of an overstory of Eqregia 
menziesii , Phyllospadix torreyi , and JP. scouleri . The algal understory 
was comprised of Lithothrix aspergillum , Bossiella orbigniana , Corallina 
officinalis , Plocamium cartilagineum , Prionitis lanceolata , Halidrys 
dioica , Gigartina spp. and Laurencia spp. 

UNIVERSITY TRAILER--The area sampled is immediately below and 
south of the University research trailer, about 1.5 km southeast of 
Forney's Cove. The coastline consisted of low cliffs up to 10 m high, 
with extensive rocky shelves at the base (Fig. 2). A 200 m stretch of 
shoreline was sampled, which included a large number of habitats such as 
tidepools, small sand beaches, and exposed ledges. In many places, the 
low-intertidal zone dropped off sharply to a depth of about 3 m. 

This site had a relatively high species richness and was similar in 
species composition to Forney's Cove. Overall, however, it had lower 
algal cover, more abalone, and fewer areas of sand accumulation than the 
cove. 




^Mvg^ 



Fig. 2. UNIVERSITY TRAILER SITE. This site is below the University research trailer, about 1.5 km 
southeast of Forney's Cove at the west end of Santa Cruz Island. The coastline is very irregular 
with a large number of habitats, including tidepools, small sand beaches, and exposed ledges. 




Fig. 3. SAUCES SITE. This site is at the mouth of Canada de los Sauces, on the west side of Santa 
Cruz Island. The coastline we sampled consisted of large stable boulders and small rocky reefs. 
The low intertidal is strongly influenced by sand, and many boulders are partially buried. 



10 



The high intertidal zone was a mixture of Endocladia muricata , 
Porphyra perforata , Ulva californica , Mastocarpus papillatus , and 
Hesperophycus harveyanus . Commonly occurring thai 1 i in the mid-zone were 
Coral 1 ina vancouveriensis on emergent substrate, and CI adophora 
columbiana and Colpomenia sinuosa in oools. There were occasional thai 1 i 
of Pel vet i a fastigiata , Cod i urn fragile , Gig art ina spp. , and Gastroclonium 
subarticulatum . Macroalgae were sparse in much of the low and mid- 
intertidal zones, possibly as a result of grazing by locally abundant 
abalone. 

The low intertidal zone was dominated by Eisenia arborea , Halidrys 
dioica , and Bossiella orbigniana . Prionitis lanceolata , Egregia 
menziesii , Lithothrix aspergillum , and Calliarthron tuberculosum were 
found occasionally. 

SAUCES--This site is at the mouth of Canada de los Sauces, on 
the southwest side of the island. A large sand beach about 200 m long 
separated rocky areas at the north and south sides of the cove. Both of 
these rocky areas were sampled. The northern section consisted of large 
stable boulders and small rocky reefs (Fig. 3). The low intertidal was 
influenced strongly by sand, and many boulders were partially buried. 
The southern portion of this site also was influenced by sand, and 
appeared to be exposed more directly to ocean swell. 

The rocky intertidal zone at this beach had an intermediate level of 
species richness, and algal cover was high. Three species were found 
solely at this site, but overall the flora was most similar to that of 
the other west-end sites (Forney's Cove and University Trailer). 

The high intertidal zone consisted of Porphyra perforata , Endocladia 
muricata , Mastocarpus papillatus , and Ulva californica , all of which were 
common. Abundant algal species of the mid-intertidal zone were Coral 1 ina 
vancouveriensis and Gigartina canaliculata . Commonly found species 
included Gigartina leptorhynchos , Gymnogongrus leptophyllus , Cryptopleura 
spp., Microcladia coulteri , Gelidium coulteri , and Chaetomorpha linum . 
The low intertidal zone had an overstory of Egregia menziesii , and 



11 



Phyl 1 ospadi x sp., with Smithora naiadum as a common epiphyte. The lush 
understory was characterized by patches of Gigartina spinosa , PI oc ami urn 
carti 1 agineum , Graci 1 ari a pacif ica , Gigartina vol ans , Boss i el 1 a 
orbigniana , Iridaea cordata, Grateloupia doryphora , and Prionitis 
1 anceolata . 

LAGUNA--This site is at the mouth of Laguna Canyon on the southern 
extreme of Santa Cruz Island. A large sand beach about 100 m long was 
present with rocky areas occurring on both sides. Sampling was 
concentrated on the west side of the site; however, a 10-20 m section of 
shoreline also was sampled on the eastern side. The site was subject to 
heavy wave action, and sampling was difficult at all times. The 
intertidal area had a moderate to steep slope and, including the splash 
zone, encompassed 10-15 m. Only about 50 m of shoreline could be sampled 
effectively. Numerous sandy pools were present. 

This site was characterized by a low species richness, and low 
abundance levels for. those species found. Many large macroalgal species 
were conspicuously absent, and filamentous algae predominated. 

The high intertidal zone had a scattered cover of Endocladia 
muricata and Porphyra perforata , with occasional thai 1 i of Nemalion 
helminthoides and Cladophora columbiana . The common occurrence of 
numerous Polysiphonia and Ceramium spp. in the mid-intertidal zone was 
unusual. Other common though not abundant species were Ulva lobata , 
Chaetomorpha linum , Gel idium coulteri , Rhodoglossum affine , Grateloupia 
doryphora , Gigartina leptorhynchos , and Enteromorpha sp. 

The low intertidal was populated sparsely with Prionitis lanceolata 
and Hal i dry s dioica . Bossiel la orbigniana , Iridaea heterocarpa , and 
Gastroclonium coulteri were occasional. 

C0CHES PRIET0S--This site is a small cove on the south-central to 
southeastern portion of Santa Cruz Island. The rocky intertidal included 
two areas separated by a small sandy beach. Both rocky areas were 
sampled. The western side of the cove was characterized by extensive 



12 



rocky reefs with several tidepools. The eastern side of the cove 
consisted of large stable boulders and rock ledges. Overall, about 150 m 
of shoreline were sampled. 

Coches Prietos had a relatively high species richness and a lush 

algal cover. Common components of the high intertidal zone were 

Endocladia muricata , Nemalion helminthoides , and Cumagloia andersonii . 

The mid-intertidal zone was characterized by dense turfs of Gelidium 
coulteri , Colpomenia sinuosa , Gigartina leptorhynchos , and Cladophora 

columbiana . A filamentous turf understory composed of Centrocerus 
clavulatum and Ceramium spp. was also common. 

Eisenia arborea and Phyllospadix sp. were common overstory plants in 
the low intertidal zone. Sargassum muticum , a species naturalized from 
Japan, also was common. Understory species included Lithothrix 
aspergillum , Hal idrys dioica , Scytosiphon lomentaria , Gigartina spinosa , 
Coral lina officinalis , Pterocladia capillacea , and Laurencia spp., all of 
which were common. 

POTATO HARBOR — This site is a sheltered cove on the northeastern 
portion of Santa Cruz Island. The area sampled included a boulder beach, 
a moderately sloping shelf, and a boulder field near the mouth of the 
cove. The shelf (Fig. 4) contained numerous tidepools. About 100 m of 
shoreline was sampled. The high intertidal zone was characterized by 
scattered patches of Mastocarpus papillatus , Endocladia muricata , and 
Nemalion helminthoides . 

The most abundant alga in the mid-intertidal zone was Coral lina 
vancouveriensis . Other common species included Gigartina canal iculata , 
C odium fragile , Gelidium coulteri , and Rhodoglossum affine . In contrast 
with other sites, invertebrates such as chitons, limpets, sea urchins, 
and mussels also were common. 

The overstory in the low intertidal was composed of Eisenia arborea , 
Macrocystis pyrifera , Egregia menziesii , and Phyllospadix sp. The 
understory was a well developed turf of Bossiella orbigniana , Laurencia 



13 



spp. , Giqartina spp., Gelidium robustum , Prionitis lanceolata , and 
Hal idrys dioica . 

CAVE ENTRANCE--This site is at the mouth of a cave between Potato 
Harbor and China Harbor. The vertical walls of the cave were sampled. 

The cave entrance was characterized by a poorly developed high and 
mid-zone flora dominated by crustose algae and invertebrates. Charac- 
teristic low zone species were Rhodymenia californica and PI oc ami urn 
cartilagineum . Less common species were PI oc ami urn violaceum and 

Cal lophyl lis violacea . 

CHINA HARBOR--This site is a large north-facing bay on the north 
side of Santa Cruz Island. The intertidal (Fig. 5) consists of low 
gradient boulder and cobble fields, with small bedrock outcrops. The 
sites sampled were primarily on the west side of the harbor below the 
access road. About 200 m of shoreline was sampled. 

The high intertidal zone throughout this site was sparsely populated 
with Ulva californica and Enteromorpha sp. The mid-intertidal zone 
consisted of a mixture of Coral lina vancouveriensis , Colpomenia sinuosa , 
Leathesia difformis , Laurencia pacifica , and Gigartina canaliculata . 
Cryptopleura was a common epiphyte, particularly on Corallina . Algal 
cover, however, was low in the mid-zone in the boulder portion of the 
site, perhaps because abalone, which graze macrophytes, were abundant on 
large boulders. Small boulders appeared to be disturbed by wave action. 

The algal overstory in the low intertidal zone was composed of 
abundant quantities of Sargassum muticum , with patches of Phyllospadix . 
Both species were covered with epiphytes. The understory included tufts 
of Pterocladia capillacea and Gelidium robustum . Herposiphonia 

verticil lata was an abundant epiphyte on a number of algae, particularly 
corallines. Other commonly occurring species were Gigartina spinosa , 
Pachydictyon coriaceum , Laurencia pacifica , Hypnea valentiae , and 
Dictyota fl abellata . Acrosorium uncinatum and Cal lith amnion rupicolum 
also were common epiphytes on a variety of algae. 



14 




Fig. 4. POTATO HARBOR SITE. This site is a 
sheltered cove on the northeastern shoreline of San- 
ta Cruz Island. The area is predominately a narrow, 
irregular, moderately sloping shelf of Monterey Shale. 




Fig. 5. CHINA HARBOR SITE. This site is a large north-facing bay on the north side of Santa Cruz 
Island. The intertidal zone consisted of low-gradient boulder and cobble fields, with small rocky 
outcroppings. 



15 



PELICAN BAY--This site is in a protected cove on the northern 
shore of Santa Cruz Island. The intertidal zone consists of a near- 
horizontal bench rising abruptly into near-vertical cliffs. There were 
numerous tidepools on the bench, the edge of which dropped off steeply 
into approximately 5 m depth. We sampled from the center of the cove, 
along the eastern side to the outside of the cove, a distance of about 
75 m. Included with this site was a small, stable boulder field about 
200 m east of Pelican Bay. 

Pelican Bay had the highest species richness of all the sites. 
Several species were found only at this site. These were Amphiroa 
zonata , Gymnoth amnion elegans , Iridaea flaccida and Pterochondria woodii . 
Algal cover was generally high, particularly in the low and mid- zones. 

The high intertidal zone was dominated by Pel vet i a fastigiata . 
Other common species were Endocladia muricata , Mastocarpus papillatus , 
and Nemalion helminthoides . The mid-zone had a number of abundant algal 
species, including Codium fragile and its epiphyte Ceramium codicola , and 
Gelidium coulteri , Coral lina vancouveriensis , and Gigartina canaliculata . 
Other commonly occurring species included Enteromorpha sp., Colpomenia 
sinuosa , Rhodoglossum affine , and Gelidium purpurascens . The low 
intertidal zone had an overstory that included Egregia menziesii , 
Macrocystis pyrifera , Eisenia arborea , and Phyllospadix sp. The 
understory was algal turf composed of Laurencia pacifica , Bossiella 
orbigniana , Gigartina spp., Rhodymenia californica , Chondria californica , 
Prionitis 1 anceol ata , Cal 1 iarthron tuberculosum , and Plocamium 
viol aceum . 

PLATT'S HARB0R--This site, on the north side of Santa Cruz Island, 
is difficult to reach from land because it lies at the base of near 
vertical cliffs. The main sampling area included approximately 60 m of 
shoreline with medium to large unstable boulders and a narrow wave-swept 
bench to the east of the harbor. Both areas received moderate wave 
action. 



16 



This site had relatively low species richness, as well as generally 
low algal cover. Endocladia muricata was abundant in the high intertidal 
zone, interspersed with Mastocarpus papil 1 at us and Nemal ion 
helminthoides . Common mid-zone algae were Gigartina canal iculata , 
Gelidium coulteri , Corallina vancouveriensis , and Rhodoglossum affine . 
A broad band of mussels ( Mytilus californicanus ) dominated the low and 
mid-zones of the bench. 

A dense overstory of Egregia menziesii occurred in the low 
intertidal zone, with occasional patches of Eisenia arborea and 
Phyllospadix . The most abundant understory species was Bossiella 
orbigniana . Other common species were Gigartina spinosa , Halymenia 
californica , Pachydictyon coriaceum , Halidrys dioica , Laurencia pacifica , 
and Prionitis lanceolata . 

FERN CAVE--This cave is located in the back of a cove just east of 
Diablo Point. The mouth of the cave, about 4 m across, is blocked by 
several large boulders, the tops of which were exposed at low tide. The 
cave extends back about 10 m. Boulders in the bottom of the cave were 
submerged completely. Non-crustose species were present only near the 
entrance to the cave, so we concentrated sampling in this area. 

Cladophora graminea , Plocamium cartilagineum , Bossiella orbigniana , 
Gigartina exasperata , and the epiphyte Herposiphonia verticil lata were 
common in the low intertidal zone near the cave entrance. Unidentified 
coralline crusts covered the rock surfaces throughout the low and mid- 
zones. 



17 



ANALYSIS OF THE INVENTORIES 

We identified and determined the relative abundance of 154 species 
from the 12 sites (Table 2). Appendix I contains the complete catalog of 
species collected during this study. Thirty-four species, or about 25% 
of the total, were new records for Santa Cruz Island (Table 3). Sixty- 
three percent of the new records are for widely distributed species 
(Abbott and Hollenberg 1976). Because previous sampling of intertidal 
macrophytes has been restricted to a few locations, the increase in total 
number of taxa probably is due to the increased sampling effort rather 
than recent changes in species distributions. As a result of this study 
and the work by Littler, intertidal species reported from Santa Cruz 
Island now number 170. To date, a total of 280 marine macrophytes have 
been collected or reported from the intertidal zone and the subtidal 
region off Santa Cruz Island. Appendix III contains a checklist of 
published records for the combined list. 

In spite of the large number of locally rare species, the general 
appearance of all sites was similar. A typical intertidal area was 
composed of a sparsely populated high intertidal region with a low 
species richness. Common high intertidal algae included Endocladia 
muricata , Porphyra perforata , Ulva californica , Mastocarpus papillatus , 
and Nemalion heminthoides . The mid-intertidal zone typically consisted 
of such species as Gelidium coulteri , Gigartina canal iculata , Gigartina 
leptorhynchos , Rhodoglossum aff ine , Coral lina vancouveriensis , and 
Cryptopleura spp. This region included many marine invertebrates such as 
mussels, barnacles, and abalone. Grazing by the latter animal probably 
influenced the species of algae present. The low zone typically 
contained Prionitis 1 anceolata , Laurencia spp., Gelidium robustum , 
Bossiella sp., Coral lina officinalis , Gigartina spinosa , Phyllospadix 
spp., and at least one large brown alga, usually Egregia menziesii or 
Eisenia arborea . 

The number of species varied greatly among sites (Table 4). Of the 
major sites visited, those most exposed to wave action (Laguna, West 
Point, and Piatt's) with less accessible intertidal area had the lowest 



18 



Table 2. Distribution And Relative Abundance Of Intertidal Macrophytes At The 
Sites Sampled On Santa Cruz Island. Species are listed alphabetically by 
division. The relative abundance values are equivalent to terms used in the text. 
1 = rare, 2 = occasional, 3 = common, and 4 = abundant. The site codes are also 
equivalent to those in the text. Where NW = Northwest Point, FC = Forney's Cove, 
UT = University trailer, SA = Sauces, LA = Laquna, CP = Coches Prietos, PO = 
Potato Harbor, CH = China Harbor, PB = Pelican Bay, PL = Piatt's Harbor, CE = Cave 
Entrance, and FE = Fern Cave. The ten major sites are qrouped toqether from the 
westernmost site, to the southern, eastern and then northern. The two minor sites 
are grouped on the left of the table. Distribution (D) over the entire California 
range is designated after each species: W = widely distributed, N = predominately 
found in northern California, S = predominately found in southern California. 



SPECIES 



DIVISION CHLOROPHYTA (Green Alqae) 

D WP FC UT SA LA CP PO CH PB PL 



CE FE 



Bryopsis corticulans 


W 


2 








1 


1 






1 




Bryopsis hypnoides 


W 










2 












Chaetomorpha linum 


W 




2 


2 


3 


3 


2 




1 






Cladophora sp. 


- 
















2 




1 


Cladophora albida 


W 












2 






1 


1 


Cladophora columbiana 


w 




2 


3 


2 


3 


3 


2 




2 


1 


Cladophora graminea 


w 


2 






1 










2 




Codium fragile 


w 


3 


1 


2 




1 


2 


3 




4 


2 


Codium setchellii 


w 








2 














Derbesia marina 


w 














1 




1 


1 


Enteromorpha sp. 


- 






2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 


Ulva californica 


s 




3 


3 


3 




1 




2 






Ulva lobata 


w 


3 


2 


2 


2 


3 




3 




2 


2 


Ulva taeniata 


N 




2 


2 




2 













SPECIES 



DIVISION PHAEOPHYTA (Brown Algae) 

D WP FC UT SA LA CP PO CH PB PL 



CE FE 



Colpomenia sp. 
Cystoseira osmundacea 
Desmarestia ligul ata 
Dictyopteris undul ata 
Dictyota binghamiae 
Dictyota f label lata 
Ectocarpus parvus 
Egregia menziesii 
Eisenia arborea 
Endarachne binghamiae 



- 




3 


3 


w 




2 


3 


w 


2 


1 




s 








w 


1 


2 




s 








u 


2 




1 


w 




3 


2 


w 


3 


1 


3 


S 






2 



19 



Halidrys dioica 


S 


2 


3 




Hesperophycus harveyanus 


W 




3 


3 


Hincksia granulosa 


w 




1 




Laminaria farlowii 


w 




1 




Laminaria setchellii 


N 


3 






Leathesia difformis 


w 




2 




Macrocystis pyrifera 


w 


3 


2 


1 


Pachydictyon coriaceum 


w 






2 


Pelvetia fastigiata 


w 




4 


2 


Petalonia fascia 


w 






2 


Sargassum muticum 


w 








Scytosiphon dotyi 


w 




1 




Scytosiphon lomentaria 


w 


1 


1 


2 


Sphacelaria didichotoma 


w 








Taonia lennebackerae 


s 




1 


1 


Zonaria farlowii 


s 









SPECIES D MP FC UT SA LA CP PO CH PB PL | CE FE 

3 3 3 3 3 
1 
2 



1 2 3 1 
2 12 3 3 

2 2 2 2 2 3 
1 2 4 

1 2 2 
3 2 4 2 1 

2 2 12 
112 13 

1 

2 1 

2 

DIVISION RHODOPHYTA (Red Algae) 

SPECIES D WP FC UT SA LA CP PO CH PB PL | CE FE 

Acrochaetium sp. 

Acrosorium uncinatum 

Ahnfeltia plicata 

Amphiroa zonata 

Ampl isiphonia pacif ica 

Anisocladel la pacif ica 

Antithamnion defectum 

Asterocol ax gardneri 

Bangia fusco-purpurea 

Bossiel la sp. 

Bossiel 1 a cal ifornica W 2 2 

Bossiella orbigniana W2333234244 

Cal 1 iarthron tuberculosum W2221 3 33 

Cal 1 ithamnion pikeanum 

Call ith amnion rupicolum 

Cal lophyl lis sp. 



- 


1 








s 










w 








1 


s 










w 






1 




w 




1 


1 




w 




1 






w 






1 




w 










- 


3 


3 


1 




w 


2 








w 


2 


3 


3 


3 


w 


2 


2 


2 


1 


N 


2 


2 






s 








1 


_ 


3 




1 





20 



SPECIES D WP FC UT SA LA CP PO CH PB PL | CE FE 

Callophyllis violacea W 2 2 2 2 

Centroceras cl avulatum S 2 2 2 2 2 
Ceramium sp. -111112 1 

Ceramium californicum W 1 

S 1 1 

W 2 2 3 2 

W 1 2 3 11 12 
S 2 12 



Ceramium 


caudatum 


Ceramium 


codicola 


Ceramium 


eatonianum 


Chondria 


cal ifornica 



Coral 1 ina sp. - 2 2 

Corallina officinalis W 32 32212 2 

Corallina vancouveriensis W3434224444 
Cryptopleura sp. -2212222332 2 

Cryptopleura lobulifera W 13 1 

Cryptopleura violacea W 2 3 2 

Cumagloia andersonii W 2 113 2 1 

Endocladia muricata W3333433234 

Erythrocystis saccata W 12 2 2 2 

Erythrotrichia sp. - 2 1 1 

Farlowia conferta N 1 

W 1 

W 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 

W3113333333 



Fauchea 1 


aciniata 


Gastroclonium coulteri 


Gelidium 
Gelidium 


coulteri 
nudifrons 


Gel idium 


purpurascens 


Gel idium 


pusil lum 


Gel idium 


robustum 


Gigartina 


canal icul ata 


Gigartina 


exasperata 


Gigartina 


harveyana 


Gigartina 


leptorhynchos 


Gigartina 


spinosa 


Gigartina 


vol ans 


Gracilaria pacifica 


Gracilaria papenfussii 



S 1 

W 2 1 2 2 

WD 1 2 



w 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


3 


4 


2 


2 


w 




4 


2 


4 


2 


4 


3 


3 


4 


4 


w 




1 




?. 




2 






2 


2 


w 




3 


1 


1 








2 






s 




3 


2 


3 


3 


3 




1 






s 

w 


2 


3 


2 
2 


4 
2 


1 
1 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


w 








3 














s 




1 


1 




1 













21 



SPECIES D WP FC UT SA LA CP PO CH PB PL | CE FE 



Graci 1 ariophi la oryzoides 


W 






1 


















Grateloupia doryphora 


W 


1 


2 




3 


2 


2 






2 






Gymnogongrus sp. 


- 








2 


1 




2 










Gymnogongrus leptophyllus 


W 




1 


1 


3 
















Gymnogongrus pi atyphy 1 1 us 


w 








1 








1 








Gymnoth amnion elegans 


s 


















2 






Haliptylon gracile 


s 












2 










2 


Halymenia cal ifornica 


w 


2 


















3 




Herposiphonia plumula 


w 


2 










2 






1 






Herposphonia verticillata 


w 


2 


1 


3 






1 


2 


4 


3 




3 


Heterosiphonia erecta 


s 
















1 


1 




1 


Hypnea valentiae 


s 
















3 








Iridaea cordata 


w 


3 


1 


1 


2 












2 




Iridaea flaccida 


w 


















2 






Iridaea heterocarpa 


N 








2 


2 














Iridaea lineare 


N 


2 






















Janczewskia gardneri 


W 
















1 








Laurencia sp. 


- 




2 












2 








Laurencia lajolla 


N 






2 






3 


3 




2 


2 




Laurencia pacifica 


W 




1 


1 




2 




3 


2 


4 


3 




Laurencia spectabilis 


W 




1 


1 






2 


2 


2 


2 


1 




Laurencia splendens 


W 




1 








1 




2 








Leptocladia binghamiae 


s 


1 


1 


1 
















1 


Lithothrix aspergillum 


w 




4 


2 






4 








1 




Mastocarpus papillatus 


N 


2 


3 


3 


3 


2 


1 


3 




3 


3 




Melobesia mediocris 


W 




2 








2 




3 


3 


2 




Microcladia coulteri 


w 


2 


1 


1 


3 


2 




1 


1 






2 


Nemalion helminthoides 


w 


2 


2 


1 


1 


2 


3 


3 


1 


3 


3 




Neoptilota hypnoides 


N 


2 






















Nienburgia andersoniana 


W 




1 




















Odonthal ia f loccosa 


N 


2 


1 




















P 1 atythamnion recurvatum 


N 




1 




















P leonosporium vancouverianum 


W 




1 


1 


















Plocamium carti lagineum 


W 




3 




3 




1 






1 




3 3 



22 



SPECIES D WP FC UT SA LA CP PO CH PB PL CE FE 

Plocamium violaceum W3211121 3 2 1 



1 1 



Pogonophorel la californica 


W 






1 














Polysiphonia sp. 


- 






1 




1 




1 




1 


Polysiphonia acuminata 


W 






1 




2 






1 




Polysiphonia brodiaei 


N 
















1 




Polysiphonia hendryi 


W 


1 






2 


3 


1 


1 




1 


Polysiphonia pacifica 


W 








2 


3 










Polysiphonia paniculata 


w 




1 






3 










Polysiphonia savatieri 


w 












1 








Polysiphonia scopulorum 


w 




1 














2 


Polysiphonia simplex 


S 




1 


1 














Porphyra perforata 


w 


2 


3 


3 


3 


4 


1 


1 


1 


2 


Prionitis lanceolata 


w 


2 


3 


2 


3 


3 


2 


3 


2 


3 


Prionitis lyalli 


w 








2 




1 








Pterochondria woodii 


s 


















2 


Pterocladia capillacea 


s 






1 






3 




4 


1 


Pterosiphonia baileyi 


w 




1 


1 


2 




1 






2 


Pterosiphonia dendroidea 


w 


1 


1 


1 






2 


1 


1 


1 


Pti lothamnionopsis lejolisea 


w 














1 






Rhodoqlossum affine 


w 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


1 


3 


Rhodymenia californica 


w 




2 




2 




2 


1 




3 


Rhodymenia pacifica 


w 








2 










1 


Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii 


w 




1 


1 


1 




1 


2 




2 


Schimmelmannia plumosa 


N 


1 






1 




1 








Schizymenia pacifica 


w 


2 










1 


2 






Scinaia confusa 


w 
















1 




Smithora naiadum 


w 




2 


2 


3 




4 






3 


Sorel la delicatula 


w 


















2 


Tiffaniella synderiae 


w 




1 


1 


1 










3 



DIVISION ANGIOSPERMAE (Flowering Plants) 

SPECIES D WP FC UT SA LA CP PO CH PB PL ] CE FE 

Phyllospadix scouleri W 32 43333 

Phyl lospadix torreyi W 3 3 3 



23 



Table 3. Species Not Recorded Previously In Published Records Of Santa 
Cruz Island Marine Macrophytes. Key: WD = widely distributed, N = 
northern species, S = southern species, * = species previously described 
only from Monterey, California, R = rare, = occasional, C = common. 
See Appendix for complete checklist of reported macrophytes. 



Species 



Ahnfeltia pi icata 
Ampl isiphonia pacif ica 
Anisocladel la pacifica 
Asterocolax qardneri 
Cal 1 ith amnion pikeanum 
Centroceras cl avulatum 
Ceramium caudatum 
Cladophora albida 
Codium setchel 1 ii 
Derbesia marina 
Farlowia conferta 
Giqartina exasperata 
Gigartina volans 
Gracilaria pacifica 
GracilarTa papenfussii 
Gracilariophila oryzoides 
Gymnothamnion elegans 
Hincksia granulosa 
Hypnea valentiae 
Iridaea heterocarpa 
Janczewskia gardneri 
Laminaria setchel 1 ii 
Odonthalia floccosa 
Phyllospadix torreyi 
PI atyth amnion recurvatum 
Pogonophorel 1 a~"cal iforni'ca 
Polysiphonia brodiaei 
Polysiphonia scopulorum 
Prionitis lyallii 
Ptilothamnionopsis lejol isea 
Schimmelmannia plumosa 
Scinaia confusa 
Sphacelaria didichotoma 
Ulva taeniata 





# Sites 


Abundance 


Distribution 


Where Found 


Where Found 


W 


1 


R 


W 


1 


R 


w 


2 


R 


w 


1 


R 


N 


2 





s 


5 





s 


2 


R 


w 


3 





w 


1 





w 


3 


R 


N 


1 


R 


W 


6 





W 


3 





W 


1 


C 


s 


3 


R 


w 


1 


R 


s 


1 





w 


2 





s 


1 


C 


N 


1 





w 


1 


R 


w 


1 


C 


N 


3 





W 


3 


C 


N 


1 


R 


W 


1 


R 


N 


1 


R 


W 


3 


C 


W 


2 





w 


1 


R 


w 


3 


R 


w 


1 


R 


w 


1 





N 


3 






24 



Table 4. Species Richness At Sites Surveyed During This Study. 



Site Name 



Location on Island 



Number of Taxa 



Pelican Bay 
Forney's Cove 
Univ. Trailer 
Coches Prietos 
Sauces 

China Harbor 
Potato Harbor 
Piatt's Harbor 
Laguna 
West Point 
Fern Cave 
Cave Entrance 



North Shore 
West End 
Southwest Side 
South Shore 
West Side 
North Shore 
North Shore 
North Shore 
South Shore 
Northwest Point 
North Shore 
North Shore 



83 
81 
76 
72 
64 
62 
57 
54 
52 
43 
18 
4 



Table 5. 


Number 


of 


Sp< 


5cies 


0c 


curring At On 


Sites. 














Number of 


Sites 










Number of 


Where Found 










Taxa 


1 




33 


2 












22 


3 












19 


4 












12 


5 












15 


6 












8 


7 












11 


8 












8 


9 












7 


all 10 


major sites 








9 



% of 


Total sp. 


22.9 


15.3 


13.2 


8.3 


10.4 


5.6 


7.6 


5.6 


4.9 


6.3 



25 



species richness. The sites with greatest richness (Pelican Bay, 
Forney's Cove, and University Trailer) were, in general, protected 
coastlines with relatively large intertidal areas. With the exception of 
West Point, all study sites had at least a few rocky areas or tidepools 
with some sand coverage. Although most sites did not appear to be 
strongly influenced by sand and had few sand-associated species, three 
psammophytes ( Cod i urn setchellii , Ahnfeltia plicata , and Gracilaria 
pacif ica ) were unique to Sauces. 

On an island-wide basis, approximately 25% of the species were 
common in distribution (frequency). We rated a commonly distributed 
species as one that occurred at six or more of our 10 major sites. The 
majority, or about 50%, were found at three or fewer sites (Table 5). Of 
the new island records (Table 3), over 50% occurred rarely, usually at 
only one or a few sites, and may have been overlooked in previous 
collecting expeditions. Hypnea valientae , a new record for the island, 
was abundant when present, and may have expanded its range northward 
during the 1983-84 El Nino conditions when seawater temperatures in 
this area were above average. 

Overall, only nine taxa were found at all ten major sites. These 
include: Cryptopleura sp., Endocladia muricata , Gelidium coulteri , 
G. robustum , Gigartina canal iculata , JS. spinosa , Nemalion helminthoides , 
Prionitis lanceolata , and Rhodoglossum affine . All of these species are 
distributed widely along the western coast of the United States, and were 
reported previously from Santa Cruz Island. 



26 



NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF SITES 

The TWINSPAN analysis separated two cave sites (Fern Cave and Cave 
Entrance) from the remaining sites on the basis of low species richness. 
They were closest in this analysis to the West Point site (Fig. 6), which 
also had a low species richness and contained several shallow, cave-like 
areas. Thus, it is not surprising that West Point is grouped with the 
cave sites. For simplicity, Fern Cave and the Cave Entrance will be 
excluded from discussion of the remaining sites. 

For our ten major sites, the DECORANA analyses gave identical 
results for the frequency classification scheme and for presence/absence 
(p/a) data (Fig. 7). Although the sites had between 43-83 species, many 
of the species were either rare or occasional within a site. The species 
that tended to be common within a site also were often geographically 
common. Thus, abundance patterns within sites were not unique enough to 
change the relationships among sites. The analyses show that most of the 
sites lie fairly close to one another on the principal components axes, 
whereas only a few sites (West Point, Laguna, and China Harbor) lie 
outside the main cluster (Fig. 7). These same sites also were separate 
in the first division in the TWINSPAN analysis (Fig. 6). 

A strong geographic pattern in the data was not shown; however, 
three west end sites (University Trailer, Forney's Cove, and Sauces) did 
appear to be similar. They also were similar, however, to China Harbor, 
a north coast site (Figs. 6 and 7). Three of the north coast sites 
(Potato Harbor, Piatt's Harbor, and Pelican Bay) were similar to each 
other, but showed similarity to Coches Prietos, a south coast site (Fig. 
7). Although the number of sites representing each rock type was low, 
there was no obvious relationship between rock type and species richness 
or composition. This also was true for abalone abundance. 

The most distinct site, using all analyses, was West Point. This 
site lies on the northwestern tip of the island, is yery exposed to ocean 
swells, and may receive colder currents (Neushul et al . 1969, Hendricks 
1977). The flora is characterized by having the lowest species richness 



27 

























































































Cave 
Entrance 


ina 
















Laguna 


Fern 
Cave 


West 
Point 


Sauces 










Potato 




Trailer Forney's Coches 

Pel 


ican 


Piatt's 





Figure 6. Dendrogram from TWINSPAN analysis based on intertidal marine macrophytes from 
all sites surveyed during this study of Santa Cruz Island. 



of all of the major sites. Many geographically common species were 
missing from the site and three species were unique to the site. These 
species, Laminaria setchellii , Neoptilota hypnoides , and Iridaea lineare , 
were common and are more typical of northern water. Two other northern 
species, Cal lithamnion pikeanum and Odonthalia floccosa , were found only 
at West Point and its neighboring site, Forney's Cove, again suggesting 
strong northern affinities for this site. 

Laguna was another site that showed strong differences from the 
other sites in both analyses. This south-facing area also was exposed to 
wave action and was found to be difficult to reach even on days when 
other sites were calm. The site had low species richness (Table 4), with 
the flora dominated by filamentous red algae, such as Polysiphonia spp. 
and Ceramium spp. Larger foliose algae were uncommon with the exception 
of Rhodoglossum aff ine and Grateloupia doryphora . Laguna contained few 
unique species. We conclude that local conditions, rather than 
geographic location, make this site unique. 

China Harbor also was an outlier in the DECOR ANA analysis (Fig. 7). 
This site consisted of a large north-facing bay with extensive boulder 
fields and discontinuous small reefs. It had a large number of species 
found at no other sites (Table 5). Of these species, the majority were 



28 



200 r 



150 



CM 

to 

X 

< 100 
< 



o 



50 - 



Laguna 



Sauces 



China 



West Point 



Univ. Trailer Potato 

i • 

^Forney's ^ p , att . s 
Pelican 
. Coches . 

L* 1 



_L 



50 100 150 200 

DCA Axis 1 



250 



300 



Figure 7. DECORANA ordination analysis by principal coordinates of the 
marine macrophytes for ten main sites (i.e., caves were excluded) on Santa 
Cruz Island. This analysis was obtained using both presence/absence data 
and scaled abundance estimates. Theeigen value for the first coordinate was 
.310 in both cases. 



150 



cm 100 h 

X 

< 



< 

O 

<=> 50 



Laguna 



Pelican 



Potato 



Piatt's 

Forney's # 



Coches 

China 
» Univ. Trailer 



West Point 



Sauces 



l 



_L 



50 



100 150 

DCA Axis 1 



200 



250 



Figure 8. DECORANA ordination analysis by principal coordinates of the 
marine macrophytes of ten main sites surveyed in this study of Santa Cruz 
Island. This analysis was conducted on species lists where the species that 
were geographically rare (i.e., they occurred at few of the sites) were down- 
weighted in importance. Eigen value for the first axis was .189. 



29 



southern, including Hypnea valenti ae , Acrosori urn uncinatum , and 
Dictyopteris undulata . Each of these was common here. Dictyota 
f label lata , another southern species, was most common at this site. 
Three species ( Far 1 owi a conf ert a , Gel idi urn nudif rons , and 
Scinaia confusa ) were included in the analysis, but were found only in 
the drift. This may have inadvertently skewed the analysis. However, 
China Harbor lacked a few common species and may be unique, because its 
orientation results in an influence from both southern and northern water 
(Seapy and Littler 1980). 

In a revision of the DECORANA analysis, we downweighted geographi- 
cally rare species (Fig. 8). As a result, China Harbor was no longer an 
outlier, suggesting that its uniqueness in the first analysis (Fig. 7) is 
due to its high number of unique species relative to the other sites 
(Table 6). West Point and Laguna, however, still were situated outside 
of the main cluster of points (Fig. 8). Sauces, a site that also tended 
to lie outside the main cluster in the original analyses (Fig. 7), was 
also less of an outlier when rare species were downweighted. This site 
contained three species unique to it and several other geographically 
uncommon species. The unique species are associated with sand-swept 
benches (Abbott & Hollenberg 1976), suggesting that the site's position 
in the analysis with respect to other sites was due in part to influence 
by sand. 

Overall, Santa Cruz Island appears to be a transitional area between 
a northern and a southern marine flora. Seventy-three percent of all 
macrophyte species reported from the island are distributed widely along 
the California coast. Nine percent are 'northern' species and 18% are 
'southern' species (Table 2). This suggests that Santa Cruz Island has 
more southern affinities than northern ones. Murray et al . (1980) 
reported similar findings in their analysis of species composition for 
intertidal macrophytes from Willows Anchorage on Santa Cruz Island. They 
found that this site was more similar to a site on Santa Barbara Island, 
one of the southern Channel Islands, than to sites where they collected 
on any of the northern islands. Although our survey included sites 



30 



Table 6. Number Of Unique Species Occurring At Each Site. Key: WD = 

widely distributed along California coast. S = has northern range limit 

in Southern California Bight. N = has southern range limit in Southern 
California Bight area. 



Site 



China Harbor 
Pelican Bay 
West Point 
Sauces 

Univ. Trailer 
Coches Prietos 
Forney's Cove 
Laguna 

Piatt's Harbor 
Potato Harbor 



Unique Species 


General Distribu 


tion 


8 


4=WD, 3=S, 1=N 




4 


3=S, 1=N 




3 


3=N 




3 


3=WD 




3 


3=WD 




3 


2=WD, 1=S 




2 


l=Monterey Only, 


1=WD 


1 


1=WD 



















throughout the island, including some with more northern affinities, our 
data still suggest the island as a whole has more species in common with 
sites to the south of the Point Conception area. It would be interesting 
to resurvey these sites at several times in the future to determine 
whether this pattern persists. Of the 33 total occurrences of northern 
species, 72% were from the sites on the western portion of the island 
(West Point, Forney's Cove, University Trailer, Sauces, and Laguna). 
Southern species, however, were well distributed throughout the island, 
and 44% of their total occurrences were from the same west end sites. 
Thus, the entire island shows southern affinities, whereas it is 
primarily the western portion of the island that shows northern 
affinities. These west end sites correspond to the areas having 
generally colder water temperatures (Hendricks 1977). Thus, the 
occurrence of a greater number of northern species in those areas may 
reflect physiological tolerances of northern species or current patterns 
that tend to bring in both colder water and spores of northern species. 



31 



SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 

We surveyed ten main sites on the northern, western, and southern 
coastlines of Santa Cruz Island for the presence of non-crustose marine 
macrophytes. Each site varied in levels of wave action, intertidal area, 
substrate type, and presence of abalone. Species richness varied from 43 
to 83 species. The sites protected from direct ocean swells had the 
highest species richness and overall abundances. Conversely, sites 
exposed to strong wave action (Laguna, West Point, Piatt's Harbor), were 
lowest in species richness and overall abundance. Substrate type did not 
have any obvious effect on the type or amount of algal material present; 
however, this apparent lack of correlation with substrate may be the 
result of the small number of sites sampled relative to the number of 
rock types present. 

Approximately 25% of the total number of species identified appear 
to be new records for Santa Cruz Island. The large percent of new 
records is probably the result of the increased number of sites sampled 
relative to past sampling efforts. The total number of marine intertidal 
macrophytes now recorded for Santa Cruz Island is 170 (Appendix I). 

The classification techniques used to analyze the species assemblage 
relationships among sites did not produce any clear cause/effect 
patterns. Further studies including a greater number of sites may be 
instructive. Sites on the northern side of the island did tend to 
cluster together as did those at the west end, although some sites 
deviated from this general pattern. A large percent of the total number 
of species recorded were found at three or fewer sites. Because we 
sampled only ten sites intensively, it is difficult to detect patterns 
using these types of analyses. Overall, the intertidal flora contained 
representatives of both northern and southern coastal species. This is 
not surprising, because the island is situated in the region of the 
Southern California Bight. This region has long been recognized as 
transitional between northern and southern floras and faunas (Seapy & 
Littler 1978, Murray et al . 1980). What is perhaps surprising is that 
southern species are more strongly represented than northern ones. 



32 



Northern species were most strongly associated with sites from the 
western portion of the island, supporting oceanographic data that show 
colder temperatures in that area. 



RECOMMENDATIONS 

Although this survey documents the characteristic algal communities 
at several sites on Santa Cruz Island, no attempt was made to establish 
permanent transects at any of the sites. Such transects would be useful 
in providing quantitative evidence for long term persistence or change in 
these assemblages. Resampling of these sites at different seasons or in 
different years (even using the same methods we used) also would be 
instructive to monitor the types of fluctuations in species composition 
that might occur in these habitats. Resampling of our sites and those 
surveyed by Littler would be particularly valuable in the event of major 
disturbances, including oil spills that could produce significant 
alterations of habitats and species assemblages. 

Biogeographic patterns are difficult to detect in communities such 
as those on Santa Cruz Island, where species richness is generally high, 
but where many species are locally and geographically rare. A more 
thorough understanding of factors controlling the regional distribution 
of algal species in the vicinity of Santa Cruz Island would involve 
sampling a greater number of sites throughout the island, particularly on 
the eastern portion, and a more detailed multivariate analysis. These 
analyses might help to identify groups of species more strongly 
associated with certain environmental conditions, including water 
temperate, rock type, or exposure. Experimental work, such as trans- 
planting, could then be conducted to test hypothesis generated by the 
multivariate analyses. A more detailed study of ocean current patterns 
around the island also might help to clarify seemingly unusual 
distribution patterns. 



33 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

This project was funded in part by the University of California 
Natural Reserve System. We thank Dr. S. Holbrook, Faculty Manager of 
SCIR, for helping to acquire funding. We also thank the Santa Cruz 
Island Company for access to the Island and Dr. L. Laughrin, Reserve 
Manager, for assistance with transportation on Santa Cruz Island. 
Drs. I. Abbott, D. Kaupran, and J. Norris assisted with the identifi- 
cation of specimens; M. Schildauer, D. Martz, and T. Dudley (UCSB) helped 
with the field work; L. Todd mounted many of the voucher specimens; 
Dr. F. Davis (UCSB) provided statistical advice; W. Ferren (UCSB) 
provided support for herbarium materials, specimen curation, and 
manuscript preparation; Donna Johnston, Melanie Fujii, and Becky Boehrs 
typed the manuscript; and UCSB Graphic Services and Printing and 
Reprographics produced the final figures and printed the publication. We 
thank the curators of UC and the Herbarium of the Hopkins Marine Station 
for access to specimens, R. Moe for assistance at UC, and P. Silva and 
K. Miller (UC) for information on the algae of Santa Cruz Island and for 
helpful comments and improvements on the manuscript. Drs. J. Markham 
(UCSB) and W. Magruder (Bishop Museum) provided valuable reviews of 
earlier drafts and D. Pritchett, L. Laughrin, and S. Holbrook also gave 
editorial assistance. Financial support for publication was provided by 
the UCSB Herbarium Fund and the Santa Cruz Island Research Fund, which is 
a joint project of The Nature Conservancy and the Santa Barbara Museum of 
Natural History. 



34 



LITERATURE CITED 

Abbott, I. A. 1985. Gracilaria from California: key, list and 

distribution of species. Jjn I. A. Abbott and J. N. Norris, eds., 

Taxonomy of economic seaweeds. California Sea Grant Program. 
Abbott, I. A. and G. J. Hollenberg. 1976. Marine Algae of California. 

Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. 
Cockerel!, T. D. A. 1939. The marine invertebrate fauna of the 

California islands. Proc. 6th Pac. Sci. Congr. 3:501-504. 
Druehl, L. 0. 1979. On the taxonomy of California Laminaria 

(Phaeophyta). J. Phycol. 15:337-338. 
Gabriel son, P. W. 1982. Morphological studies of members of the tribe 

Agardhielleae (Sol ieriaceae, Rhodophyta). II. Sarcodiotheca 

gaudichaudii (Montagne) comb. nov. Phycologia 21:86-96. 
Goldsmith, F. B., C. M. Harrison, and A. J. Morton. 1986. Description 

and analysis of vegetation. _I_n P. D. Moore and S. 8. Chapman, 

eds., Methods in Plant Ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, 

Palo Alto, CA. 
Guiry, M. D., J. A. West, D-H. Kim, and M. Masuda. 1984. Reinstatement 

of the genus Mastocarpus KUtzing (Rhodophyta). Taxon 33:53-63. 
Hawkes, M. W. and R. F. Scagel . 1986. The marine algae of British 

Columbia and northern Washington: division Rhodophyta (red algae), 

class Rhodophyceae, order Rhodymeniales. Can. J. Bot. 64:1549- 

1580. 
Hendricks, T. J. 1977. Satellite imagery studies. J_n Coastal water 

research project annual report for the year ended 30 June 1977, pp. 

75-78. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, El 

Segundo, CA. 
Hill, M. 0. 1979. DEC0RANA: A Fortran program for detrended 

correspondence analysis and reciprocal averaging. Cornell 

University, Ithaca, NY. 
Huisman, J. M. 1985. The Scinaia assemblage (Gal axauraceae, 

Rhodophyta): a reapprasial. Phycologia 24:403-418. 
Littler, M. M. , ed. 1977. Spatial and temporal variation in the 

distribution and abundance of rocky intertidal and tidepool biotas 



35 



in the Southern California Bight. Bureau of Land Management, U.S. 
Dept. Interior, Washington, DC. 

Littler, M. M., ed. 1978. The annual and seasonal ecology of southern 
California subtidal, rocky intertidal and tidepool biotas. Bureau 
of Land Management, U.S. Dept. Interior, Washington, DC. 

Littler, M. M., ed. 1979. The distribution, abundance, and community 
structure of rocky intertidal and tidepool biotas in the Southern 
California Bight. Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Dept. Interior, 
Washington, DC. 

Littler, M. M. 1980. Overview of the rocky intertidal systems of 
Southern California. _In D. M. Power, ed., The California Islands: 
proceedings of a multidiscipl inary symposium. Santa Barbara Museum 
of Natural History, Santa Barbara, CA. 

Murray, S. N. 1974. Benthic algae and grasses. ln_ M. E. Dailey, 
B. Hill, and N. Lansing, eds., A summary of knowledge of the 
southern California coastal zone and offshore areas. II. 
Biological Environment. Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Dept. 
Interior, Washington, DC. 

Murray, S. N., M. M. Littler, and I. A. Abbott. 1980. Biogeography of 
the California marine algae with emphasis on the Southern California 
islands. Ir^D. M. Power, ed., The California Islands: proceedings 
of a multidiscipl inary symposium. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural 
History, Santa Barbara, CA. 

Neushul, M., W. D. Clarke, and D. W. Brown. 1967. Subtidal plant and 
animal communities of the Southern California Islands. ln_ 
R. N. Phi 1 brick, ed., Proceedings of the symposium on the biology of 
the California Islands. Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, Santa 
Barbara, California. 

Seapy, R. R. and M. M. Littler. 1980. Biogeography of rocky intertidal 
macroinvertebrates of the Southern California islands. _I_n 
D. M. Power, ed., The California Islands: proceedings of a 
multidiscipl inary symposium. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural 
History, Santa Barbara, CA. 

Silva, P. C, E. G. Menez, and R. L. Moe. 1987. Catalog of the benthic 
marine algae of the Philippines. Smithsonian Contributions to the 
Marine Sciences, No. 27. 



36 



APPENDICIES 



">*^""^i^-i^ • **"' 




^^^^^^-v' "' Jfc 




V - - 


J**^ 




~~ 









-^Sfjrt. 












:®e:-*ir 



W* 1 * 



"• 






- 



3v^«t 



*S5»* 



i J" 




Wew northeastward 

from vicinity of Fraser Point, 

Santa Cruz Island 



APPENDIX I 
Annotated Catalogue of the Intertldal Macrophytes of Santa Cruz Island 

This Annotated Catalogue includes all marine algae and flowering 
plants collected on Santa Cruz Island during our study. A checklist of 
all algae reported from intertidal and subtidal habitats at Santa Cruz 
Island is presented in Appendix III. All specimens cited in Appendix I 
are deposited in the UCSB Herbarium, with selected duplicate specimens 
deposited at the Santa Cruz Island Reserve Herbarium (SCIR) and the 
University Herbarium (UC) at the University of California, Berkeley. The 
catalogue is arranged in an order traditionally used for marine algae: 
the Chlorophyta are first, followed by the Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta 
algae, with the flowering plants last. Genera are arranged 
alphabetically within each group. 

Included for each species are the scientific name, a brief 
description of relevant information regarding growth habit and intertidal 
location, abundance/distribution [abundance refers to the average 
relative percent cover for each taxon at each site: rare = less than 
four specimens seen at a site, occasional = between four and 20 specimens 
found, common = did not occupy more than 25% cover, abundant = occupied 
more than 25% cover within its respective intertidal zone; distribution 
(frequency) is the number of sites on the island where the taxa was 
found: rare = 1, occasional = 2-4, common = 5-7, abundant = 8-12]; and 
finally the specific site and field collection number for each specimen. 
The two letter site code is as follows: CE = Cave near Potato Harbor, 
CH = China Harbor, CP = Coches Prietos, FC = Forney's Cove, FE = Fern 
Cave, LA = Laguna, PB = Pelican Bay, PL = Piatt's Harbor, P0 = Potato 
Harbor, SA = Sauces, UT = University Trailer, WP = West Point. 
Collection number is our research team field number for voucher 
specimens. Figure numbers refer to photographs of algae in Appendix II. 



39 



ANNOTATED CATALOGUE 

DIVISION CH.LOROPHYTA (Green Algae) 



Bryopsis corticulans Setch. Attached to substrate in mixed turf, low- 
mid intertidal; rare-occasional /occasional ; WP 2500 2541 , LA 2588 , CP 
2029 , PB 2276 . 

Bryopsis hypnoides Lamour. Attached to substrate in mixed turf, mid- 
intertidal; occasional/rare; LA 2191 . 

Chaetomorpha linum (MU 11.) KCitz. Attached to substrate in mixed turf, 
mid-high intertidal; rare-common/common; FC 1812 , UT 1927 , SA 2114 , LA 
2174, CP 2035 , CH 2389 . 

Cladophora sp. Unidentifiable to species, rare/rare: PL 2435 . 

Cladophora albida (Huds.) KUtz. Attached to substrate, mid-high 

intertidal; rare-occasional /occasional ; CP 2058 2059 , PB 2272 , PL 2447 . 

Cladophora columbiana Coll. Attached to substrate, mid-intertidal; rare- 
common/ abundant; NW 1814 1869 1884 , FC 1922 , SA 2090 , LA 2175 , CP 2037 , 
PO 2334 , CH 2387 , PB 2273 2280 , PL 2449 . 

Cladophora graminea Coll. Attached to substrate, mid-intertidal or in 
pools; rare-common/occasional ; WP 2506 2551 2557 , SA 2112 , PB 2262 , FE, 
2455 . 

Codium fragile (Sur.) Har. Attached to substrate, low-mid intertidal or 
in pools; rare-abundant/abundant; WP 2495 2528 , FC 1816 , UT 1888 , LA 
2576 , CP 2010 , PO 2338 , PB 2229 , PL 2407: 

Codium setchell i i Gardn. Attached to substrate, mid-intertidal; 
occasional/rare; SA 2093 . 

Derbesia marina (Lyngb.) Sol. Epizoic on sponge ( 2238 ), "Halicystis" 
stage attached to crustose coral ine algae ( 2312 , 2414 ), low intertidal; 
rare/occasional; PO 2312 , PB 2238 , PL 2414 . 

Enteromorpha sp. Unidentifiable to species, epiphytic or attached to 
substrate, all tidal levels; rare-common/abundant; UT 2473 , SA 2151 , LA 
2165 2192 , CP 1799 2067 , PO 2355 , CH 2386 , PB 2250 , PL ZZW . 

Ulva cal ifornica Wille. Attached to substrate, mid-high intertidal; 
rare-common/common; FC 1873 , UT 1941 , SA 2126 , CP 2050 , CH 1800 . 

Ulva lobata (KUtz.) S. & G. Attached to substrate or epiphytic, low-mid 
intertidal or in pools; occasional-common/abundant; WP 2556 , FC 1875 , UT 
1942 2474 , SA 2128 , LA 2162 2164 2169 , PO 2317 2354 , PB 2300 , PL 2443 
?450. 



40 



Ulva taeniata (Setch.) S. & G. Attached to substrate or epizoic on 
mussels, low-mid intertidal or in pools; rare-common/occasional; FC 1874, 
UT 1942 , LA 2162 2169 . 

DIVISION PHAEOPHYTA (Brown Algae) 

Colpomenia sinuosa (Roth) Derb. & Sol. All Colpomenia spp. were placed 
into C. sinuosa , because it was not possible, due to morphological 
overlap, to distinguish C_, peregrina . Attached to substrate, low-high 
intertidal; occasional -abundant/common; FC 1825 , UT 1921 , CP 2012 2016 
2070 , PO 2307 , CH 1780 , PB 2245 , PL 2413 . 

Cystoseira osmundacea (Turn.) C. Ag. Attached to substrate, low 
intertidal or in deep pools; rare-common/occasional; FC 1807 , UT 1885 , CH 
1765 , PB 2243. 

Desmarestia ligulata (Lightf.) Lamour. Attached to substrate, low 
intertidal; rare-occasional/occasional; WP 2523 , FC 2490 , SA 2080 , PL 
2397 . 

Dictyopteris undulata Holmes. Attached to substrate, low intertidal; 
occasional/rare; CH 1762 . 

Dictyota binghamiae J. Ag. Attached to substrate, low intertidal; rare- 
occasion aT7occasTonal ; WP 2517 , FC 1819 . 

Dictyota flabellata (Coll.) S. & G. Attached to substrate, low-mid 
intertidal; occasional-common/occasional; LA 2579 , CH 2375 , PL 2437 . 

Ectocarpus parvus (Saund.) Hollenb. Fig. 15. Epiphytic on various brown 
algae, primarily on old portions of Eisenia and Halidrys ; rare- 
occasional /common; WP 2494 2497 2568 , UT 1912 2484 , LA 2577 , PO 2313 
2342, PL 2429 . 

Egregia menziesii (Turn.) Aresch. Attached to substrate, low intertidal 
and in pools; rare-abundant/abundant; FC 1822 , UT 1944 , SA 2076 , LA 2160 , 
CP 2004 , PO 2340 , CH 1785 , PB 2237 , PL 2409 . 

Eisenia arborea Aresch. Attached to substrate, very low intertidal, 
heavy surge areas; rare-abundant/common; WP 2492 2543 , FC 1834 , UT 1940 , 
CP 2002 , PO 2340 2345 , PB 2249 , PL 2408 2409 . 

Endarachne binghamiae J. Ag. Attached to substrate in sandy area, mid- 
intertidal, occasional/rare; UT 2472 . 

Hal idrys d i o i c a Gardn. Attached to substrate, low intertidal; 
common/common; WP 2535 , FC 2488 , LA 2178 , CP 2003 , PO 2343 , PB 2218 , PL 
2410 . 

Hesperophycus harveyanus (Decne.) S. & G. Attached to substrate, mid- 
high intertidal; rare-common/occasional; FC 1828, UT 1891, PB 2215. 



41 



Hincksia granulosa (J. E. Smith) Silva. Fiq. 17. Attached to substrate, 
in mixed turf, mid intertidal or in pools; rare-occasional /occasional ; FC 
1852 , PB 2241 2246 . 

Laminaria farlowii Setch. Attached to substrate, very low intertidal; 
rare-occasional/occasional ; FC 1815 , SA 2085 . 

Laminaria setchellii Silva. Attached to substrate, very low intertidal; 
common/rare; WP 2493 2531 . 

Leathesia difformis (L.) Aresch. Attached to substrate, low-mid 

intertidal; rare-common/occasional; FC 2478 , LA 2583 , PO 2316 , CH 2372 , 
PB 2247 , PL 2415 . 

Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Ag. Attached to substrate, very low 
intertidal or in deep pools, rare-common/abundant; WP 2522 , FC 1806 , UT 
1943 , SA 2105 , LA 2187 . CP 2005 , PO 2346 , PB 2239 . 

Pachydictyon coriaceum (Holmes) Okam. Attached to substrate or sometimes 
epiphytic on Cystoseira , low-mid intertidal or in pools; occasional- 
common/common; UT 1909 , CP 2034 LA 2179 , PO 2341 , CH 1765 1778 , PB 2259 , 
PL 2400 . 

Pelvetia fastigiata (J. Ag.) DeToni. Attached to substrate, mid-high 
intertidal; rare-common/common; FC 1804 , UT 1892 , LA 2188 , CP 2006 , 
PB 2223 . 

Petalonia fascia (Mull.) Kuntze. Attached to substrate, mid-intertidal; 
rare-occasional/occasional; UT 1934 , SA 2137 , LA 2177, CH 1795 . 

Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensh. Attached to substrate, low-mid 
intertidal in protected areas; rare-abundant/common; CP 2046 , CH 1787 , PO 
2315 , PB 2227 , PL 2441 . 

Scytosiphon dotyi Wynne. Attached to substrate, mid-high intertidal; 
rare-occasional /occasional; FC 2482 , SA 2121 , LA 2163 2208 , CH 1779 , PB 
2270 . 

Scytosiphon lomentaria (Lyngb.) J. Ag. Attached to substrate, low-mid 
intertidal; rare-common/common; WP 2547 , FC 1823 , UT 1926 , SA 2149 , LA 
2176 , CH 1782 , CP 2018 2019 , PB 2269 . 

Sphacelaria didichotoma Saund. Fig. 27. Epiphytic on Sargassum ; 
rare/rare; CP 2073 . 

Taonia lennebackerae J. Ag. Attached to substrate, low-mid intertidal; 
rare-occasional/occasional ; FC 1810 , UT 1911 , CP 2051 , PL 2430 . 

Zonaria farlowii S. % G. Attached to substrate, low intertidal; 
occasional/rare; CP 2040. 



42 



DIVISION RHODOPHYTA (Red Algae) 

Acrochaetium sp. Epiphytic on Sarqassum muticum ; rare/occasional; WP 
2568 , CP 2073 . 

Acrosorium uncinatum (Turn.) Kyi. Epiphytic on Pterocladia sp. and other 
species; common/rare; CH 1768 . 

Ahnfeltia plicata (Huds.) Fries. Attached to substrate, low intertidal; 
rare/ rare; SA 2100 . 

Amphiroa zonata Yendo. Attached to substrate, low intertidal; 
occasional/rare; PB 2266 . 

Amplisiphonia pacifica Hollenb. Epiphytic on holdfast of Eisenia , low 
intertidal; rare/rare; UT 1916 . 

Anisocladella pacifica Kyi. Attached to sandy substrate, beneath 
Phyllospadix beds, low intertidal or in pools; rare/occasional; FC 1844 , 
UT 1896 . 

Antithamnion defectum Kyi. Fig. 9. Epiphytic on coralline algae or 
epizoic on mussels, high to low intertidal; rare/occasional; UT 1885, PB 
2231 , PL 2441 . 

Asterocol ax gardneri (Setch.) Feldm. & Feldm. Parasitic on 
Ani socl adel 1 a ; rare/rare; UT 1895 . 

Bangia fusco-purpurea (Dillw.) Lyngb. Attached to substrate, high 
intertidal-splash zone; rare/rare; CH 1776 . 

Bossiella sp. Unidentifiable to species; WP 2546 , FC 1836 , UT 1917 . 

Bossiella californica (Dec.) Silva. Attached to substrate, mid-low 
intertidal; occasional-common/occasional; WP 2512 2514 2560 2561 , PO 
2353 . 

Bossiella orbigniana (Dec.) Silva. Attached to substrate, low 
intertidal; occasional-abundant/abundant; WP 2513 , FC 1837 1838 , UT 1901 , 
SA 2095 2109 2110 , LA 2159 , CP 2023 , PO 2335 , CH 1769 , PB 2552 2304 , PL 
243T7 TE 2466 2468 . 

Calliarthon tuberculosum (Post. & Rupr.) Dawson. Attached to substrate, 
low intertidal or in pools; rare-common/common; WP 2526 , FC 1860 1861 , 
UT 1920 , SA 2091 , PB 2242 , PO 2350 , PL 2424 2425 . 

Callithamnion pike an urn Harv. Attached to substrate, high intertidal; 
occasional/occasional; WP 2500 2501 , FC 2481 . 

Callithamnion rupicolum Anders. Fig. 10. Epiphytic on other algae, 
typically Corallina spp. rare-occasional/common, SA 2139 , PO 2311 , CH 
1783, PB 2253 2256, PL 2432 2435. 



43 



Cal lophyl lis sp. Unidentifiable to species; WP 2575 , UT 1953 . 

Callophyllis violacea J. Ag. Attached to substrate, low intertidal; 
occasional/occasional; SA 2118, PB 2301 , CE 2369 . 

Centroceras clavulatum (C. Aq.) Mont. Fig. 11. Attached to substrate in 
mixed algal turf or epiphytic, low-mid intertidal; rare-common/common; FC 
1858 1860 1862 1864 , UT 1924 , SA 2150 , CP 2041 2056 2065 , CH 1786 . 

Ceramium spp. Unidentifiable to species, due to lack of diagnostic 
reproductive structures; WP 2555 2562 , FC 1879 , UT 1955 2485 , LA 2195 
2578 2587 2591 , CP 2068 2073 , PB 2277 . 

Ceramium californicum J. Ag. Fig. 12. Epiphytic on Prionitis , low 
intertidal; occasional/rare; SA 2143 . 

Ceramium caudatum S. & G. Fig. 13. Attached to substrate in mixed 
delicate turf or epiphytic, low intertidal; rare/occasional; PO 2351 , PB 
2283 . 

Ceramium codicola J. Ag. Epiphytic on Cod i urn fragile ; occasional- 
common/occasional; WP 2529 , UT 1890 , PO 2339 , PB 2203 2283 , PL 2403 . 

Ceramium eatonianum (Farl.) DeToni. Fig. 14. Attached to substrate in 
mixed delicate turf or epiphytic on a variety of algae, mid-intertidal; 
rare-common/common; FC 1872 , SA 2145 , LA 2196 2199 2201 2206 , CP 2065 , PO 
2347 , PB 2257 2260 2278 2286 , PL 2434 2435 . 

Chondria californica (Coll.) Kyi. Epiphytic on variety of algae, 
typically Sargassum muticum ; rare-common/occasional; CP 2060 , CH 1803 , PB 
2261 2295 . 

Corallina sp. Unidentifiable to species; WP 2560 2561 , FE 2467 . 

Coral lina officinalis var. chilensis (Dec.) Ktltz. Attached to substrate, 
low-mid intertidal or in pools; rare-common/common; FC 1840 , UT 1917 , CP 
2036 , PO 2330, CH 1771 , PB 2302 , PL 2423 , FE 2457 . 

Coral 1 ina vancouveriensis Yendo. Attached to substrate, low-mid 

intertidal or in pools; occasional-abundant/abundant; WP 2510 2553 , FC 
1839 , UT 1839 , SA 2083 , LA 2166 , PO 2337 , CH 1772 1774, PB J25T, PL 
2426 . 

Cryptopleura sp. Most of these specimens are probably _C. coral linara , 
but lack critical reproductive stages for confirmation; epiphytic on a 
variety of algae particularly Corallina ; rare-common/abundant; WP 2539 , 
FC 1853 , UT 1950 , SA 2133 2134 , LA 25"84" , CP 2052 2054 , PO 2349 2364"7 ~PB 
229j7~Pl 2444 , FE 2462 . 

Cryptopleura lobulifera (J. Ag.) Kyi. Attached to substrate or 

epiphytic, low intertidal; rare-common/occasional; UT 1930 , SA 2138 , 
CP 2036. 



44 



Cryptopleura violacea (J. Ag.) Kyi. Attached to substrate or more 
commonly epiphytic, low-mid intertidal; occasional-common/occasional; FC 
1826 , SA 2131 , CH 2382 . 

Cumagloia andersonii (Farl.) S. & G. Attached to substrate, mid-high 
intertidal; rare-common/common; FC 2479 , SA 2084 , LA 2161 , CP 2050 , PO 
2331 , PB 2258 . 

Endocladia muricata (Post. & Rupr.) J. Ag. Attached to substrate, mid- 
high intertidal; occasional-abundant/abundant; WP 2540 , FC 1843 , UT 1938 , 
SA 2102 , LA 2171 , CP 2074 , PO 2329 , CH 1803 , PB 2279 , PL 2445 . 

Erythrocystis saccata (J. Ag.) Silva. Epiphytic on Laurencia pacificum , 
except ( 2420 ) which was epiphytic on I. spectabilis , mid-intertidal; 
rare-occasional /occasional; LA 2590 , CP 2038 , PO 2320 , PB 2274 , PL 2420 
2442 . 

Erythrotrichia sp. Fig. 16. Epiphytic on various kelps, mixed with 
Ectocarpus parvus ; rare/occasional; WP 2497 2568 , UT 1912 2484 . 

Farlowia conferta (Setch.) Abb. Drift, washed up on shore; rare/rare; CH 
2377. 

Fauchea laciniata J. Ag. Attached to substrate, low intertidal pool; 
rare/rare; FE 2459 . 

Gastroclonium subarticulatum (Turner) KCItz. Attached to substrate, 
frequently in mixed turf, low-mid intertidal or in pools; rare- 
occasional /common; FC 1859 , UT 1923 , SA 2082 , LA 2158 , CP 2027 , CH 1781 , 
FE 2453 . 

Gelidium coulteri Harv. Attached to substrate, sometimes epiphytic, low- 
high intertidal , primarily mid-intertidal, or in pools; rare- 
abundant/abundant; WP 2527 , FC 1880 , UT 1945 , SA 2088 , LA 2172 2173 2213 , 
CP 2031 , PO 2358 2359 2364 , CH 1798 , PB 2285 2287 , PL 2438 2440 . 

Gelidium nudifrons Gardn. Drift, washed up on shore; rare/rare; CH 
2383 . 

Gelidium purpurascens Gardn. Attached to substrate, sometimes epiphytic, 
low intertidal or in pools; rare-common/common; FC 1846 1848 , UT 1939 , LA 
2181 , PO 2356 , PB 2284 . 

Gelidium pusillum (Stackh.) Le Jol. Attached to substrate, in dense turf 
with Endocladia , mid-high intertidal; rare-occasional/occasional; FC 
1882 , UT 1938 . 

Gelidium robust urn (Gardn.) Hollenb. & Abb. Attached to substrate, ^/ery 
low intertidal , sometimes in pools; rare-abundant/abundant; WP 2534 , FC 
1830 , UT 1886 , SA 2107 , LA 2185 , CP 2030 , PO 2344 , PB 2232, CH 1789 , PL 
2433. 



45 



Gigartina canal icul ata Harv. Attached to substrate, low-mid 

intertidal or in pools; occasional-abundant/abundant; FC 1841 , UT 1902 , 
CP 2011 , SA 2086 , LA 2157 , PO 2327 , CH 1793 , PB 2219 2293, PL 2422. 

Gigartina exasperata Harv. & Bail. Attached to substrate, low 

intertidal; occasional -common/ common; FC 2487 , SA 2096 2120 , CP 2007 , PB 
2217, PL 2396 , FE 2363 . 

Gigartina harveyana (KUtz.) S. & G. Attached to substrate, low 
intertidal or in pools; rare-common/occasional; FC 1805 , UT 1914 , SA 
2104 , CH 2373. 

Gigartina leptorhynchos J. Ag. Attached to substrate, low-mid intertidal 
or in pools; rare-common/common; FC 1835 , UT 1925 , SA 2081 , LA 2153 , CP 
2013 , CH 1770 . 

Gigartina spinosa (Kutz.) Harv. Attached to substrate, low intertidal or 
in pools; rare-common/abundant; WP 2525 , FC 1809 , UT 1913 , SA 2099 2136 , 
LA 2186 , CP 2028 , CH 1788 , PO 2322 , ~PT ~ 2216 , 7171395, 7TT463 . 

Gigartina volans (C. Ag.) J. Ag. Attached to substrate, low intertidal; 
rare-common/occasional; UT 1935 1951 , SA 2094 2111 2115 , LA 2211 . 

Gracilaria pacifica Abb. Attached to substrate, in sandy areas, patchy 
distribution; common/rare; SA 2089 . 

Gracilaria papenfussii Abb. Attached to substrate, low-mid intertidal 
pools; rare/occasional; FC 1813 1851 , UT 1957 , LA 2580 . 

Gracilariophila oryzoides Setch. & Wils. Parasitic on Gracilaria 
papenfussii ; rare/rare; UT 1958 . 

Grateloupia doryphora (Mont.) Howe. Attached to substrate, low-mid 
intertidal or in pools; rare-common/common; WP 2505 2544 , FC 1854 , SA 
2123, LA 2182 2210, CP 2061 , PB 2289 2290 2305 . 

Gymnogongrus sp. Unidentifiable to species; SA 2142, LA 2212 , PO 2365 . 

Gymnogongrus leptophyllus J. Ag. Attached to substrate, .low intertidal 
pools; rare/occasional; FC 1842 , UT 1904 1947 1954 , SA 2098 . 

Gymnogongrus platyphyllus Gardn. Attached to substrate, low intertidal; 
rare/occasional; SA 2135 , CH 2392 . 

Gymnothamnion elegans (C. Ag.) J. Ag. Fig. 18. Attached to substrate in 
mixed delicate turf, mid-intertidal , isolated patch found on mussels in 
small cave; rare/rare; PB 2221 2226 2233 . 

Hal iptylon gracile (Lamour.) Johans. Attached to substrate, low 

intertidal; occasional/occasional; CP 2044 , FE 2467 . 

Halymenia cal ifornica Smith & Hollenb. Attached to substrate, in 
localized patches, low intertidal; occasional-common/occasional; WP 2532 , 
PL 2399. 



46 



Herposiphonia pi umu 1 a (J. Ag.) Hollenb. Epiphytic on Coral lina spp.; 
rare-occasional/occasional ; WP 2501 2558 , CP 2064 , PB 2277 1 

Herposiphonia verticil! at a (Harv.) Kyi. Epiphytic on other algae, 
particularly Coral lina spp.; rare-abundant/ abundant; WP 2259 2563 2564 , 
FC 1872 , UT 1908 , CP 2068 , PO 2332 , CH 1784 , PB 2288 , PL HW , FE 245T7 " 

Heterosiphonia erecta Gardn. Attached to substrate or epiphytic, low 
intertidal; rare/occasional; CH 1802 , PB 2255 , FE 2452 . 

Hypnea valentiae (Turn.) Mont. Attached to substrate in turf or 
epiphytic on other algae, low intertidal; common/rare; CH 1766 2376 
2378 . 

Iridaea cordata (Turn.) Bory. Attached to substrate, low-mid intertidal; 
rare- common/ occasional; WP 2524 , FC 1847 , UT 1936 , SA 2108 2113 2216 , PL 
2398. 

Iridaea flaccida (S. & G.) Silva. Attached to substrate, low intertidal; 
occasional/rare; PB 2299 . 

Iridaea heterocarpa Post. & Rupr. Attached to substrate, low intertidal; 
occasional/occasional; SA 2120 2146 2147 , LA 2180 . 

Iridaea lineare (S. & G.) Kyi. Attached to substrate, low intertidal in 
areas of heavy surge; occasional/rare; WP 2496 . 

Janczewski a gardneri Setch. & Guerns. Parasitic on Laurencia 
spectabilis ; rare/rare; CH 2393 . 

Laurencia sp. Unidentifiable to species; FC 1863 1871 , CH 1796 1797 . 

Laurencia lajolla Daws. Attached to substrate in dense turf, low-mid 
intertidal; occasional-common/common; UT 1937 , CP 2043 , PO 2324 , PB 2271 , 
PL 2412. 

Laurencia pacifica Kyi. Attached to substrate forming turf, low-mid 
intertidal; rare-abundant/common; FC 1820 1867 1868 , UT 1948 , LA 2170 , PO 
2319 , CH 1794 2371 , PB 2225 , PL 2416 . 

Laurencia spectabilis Post. & Rupr. Attached to substrate, low 
intertidal or in pools; rare-occasional /common; FC 1865 , UT 1889 , CP 
2021 , PO 2318 , CH 1763 , PB 2292 , PL 2421 . 

Laurencia splendens Hollenb. Attached to substrate in turf or epiphytic, 
low-mid intertidal; rare-occasional /occasional ; FC 1871 , CP 2022 , CH 
2374. 

Leptocladia binghamiae J. Ag. Attached to substrate, low intertidal or 
in pools; rare/ occasional; WP 2566 , FC 1817 , UT 1903 , FE 2454 . 

Lithothrix aspergillum Gray. Attached to substrate, low intertidal or in 
pools; rare- abundant/occasional; FC 1821 , UT 1898 , CP 2024 , PL 2419 . 



47 



Mastocarpus papillatus (C. Ag.) Ktltz. Attached to substrate, mid-high 
intertidal, sometimes in pools; rare-abundant/abundant; WP 2511 2537 , FC 
1824 , UT 1928 1929 , SA 2101 2117 2140 , LA 2156 , CP 2045 ,""WT jggT , PB 
2298 , PL 2417 . 

Melobesia mediocris (Fosl.) Setch. & Mason. Epiphytic on Phyllospadix , 
low intertidal; occasional-common/common; FC 1831 , CP 2000 , CH 1761 , PB 
2264 , PL 2406 . 

Microcladia coulteri Harv. Epiphytic on other algae, typically Prionitis 
or Gigartina ; rare-common/abundant; WP 2508 2572 , FC 1881 , UT 1915 , SA 
2122 , LA 2183 , PO 2333, CH 1767 1790 , FE ~?4T5 . 

Nemalion helminthoides (Veil.) Batt. Attached to substrate, high 
intertidal; rare-common/abundant; WP 2533 , FC 2480 , UT 1887 , CP 2025 , SA 
2106 , LA 2167 2209 , PO 2323 , CH 1775 , PB 2222 , PL 2407 . 

Neopti lota hypnoides (Harv.) Kyi. Attached to substrate, mid-intertidal ; 
occasional/rare; WP 2548 . 

Nienburgia andersoniana (J. Ag.) Kyi. Attached to substrate, mid- 
intertidal pool; rare/rare; FC 1866 . 

Odonthalia floccosa (Esp.) Falk. Attached to substrate, low intertidal; 
rare- occasional/occasional ; WP 2545 , FC 2486 , CP 2017 . 

PI atyth amnion recurvatum Wol 1 . Fig. 19. Epizooic on sponge, high 
intertidal poof; rare/rare; FC 1857 . 

Pleonosporium vancouverianum (J. Ag.) J. Ag. Fig. 20. Epiphytic on 
coral ine algae; rare/occasional; FC 1876 , UT 1907 . 

PI oc ami urn cart i lag ineum (L.) Dix. Attached to substrate, low-mid 
intertidal or in pools; rare-common/common; FC 1811 , SA 2079 , CP 2008 , PB 
2267 , FE 2456 , CE 2367 . 

Plocamium violaceum Farl. Attached to substrate, on steep rock faces, 
low intertidal; rare-common/abundant; WP 2552 , UT 1897 , SA 2127, LA 2184 
2204 , CP 2009 , PO 2336 , PB 2268 , FE 2460 , TE ~2368 . 

Pogonophorella californica (J. Ag.) Silva. Attached to substrate under 
Phyllospadix bed in loose sand, low intertidal; rare/rare; UT 1893 . 

Polysiphonia sp. Unidentifiable to species; UT 1952 , LA 2192 2197 , PO 
2317 2321 , "PB 2250 , PL 2404 . 

Polysiphonia acuminata Gardn. Epiphytic on other algae, typically 
Gigartina "spp.; rare/occasional; UT 1900 2470 2483 , LA 2581 , CH 1801 
?390~ : 

Polysiphonia brodiaei (Dillw.) Spreng. Epiphytic on Prionitis , 

rare/rare, CH 2394. 



48 



Polysiphonia hendryi Gardn. Fig. 21. Attached to substrate in delicate 
turf or epiphytic on a variety of algae or epizooic, mid-intertidal ; 
rare- common/ common; WP 2549 , SA 2144 , LA 2194 2198 2203 2577 2587 2589 , 
CP 2062 , PO 2310 , PB 2246 2286 . 

Polysiphonia pacifica Hollenb. Fig. 22. Attached to substrate in 
delicate turf, mid-intertidal; rare-common/occasional; PO 2309 2347 , PB 
2226 . 

Polysiphonia pan icu lata Mont. Fig. 23. Attached to substrate in 
delicate turf or sometimes epiphytic; rare-common/ occasional; FC 1877 
1878 , LA 2190 2200 2205 2210 2586 2587 . 

Polysiphonia savatieri Har. Epiphytic on Sargassum ; rare/rare; CP 2069 . 

Polysiphonia scopulorum var. villum (J. Ag.) Hollenb. Fig. 24. Attached 
to substrate in delicate turf, mid-intertidal; rare-common/occasional; FC 
1883 , UT 2476 , PB 2220 2240 2246 2251 . 

Polysiphonia simplex Hollenb. Attached to substrate in sandy pools or 
epiphytic; rare/occasional; FC 1877 , UT 1900 . 

Porphyra perforata J. Ag. Attached to substrate, sometimes epiphytic, 
high intertidal; rare-abundant/abundant; NW 2518 2530 , FC 1818 , UT 1910 , 
SA 2097 , LA 2152 , CP 2039 , PO 2352 , CH 1777, PB 2228 . 

Prionitis lanceolata (Harv.) Harv. Attached to substrate, low-mid 

intertidal or in pools; occasional-common/abundant; WP 2502 2569 2570 , FC 

1 808 , UT 1932 , SA 2103 , LA 2155 , CP 2026 , PO 2308 , CH 1767 1790 , PB 2235 , 
PL 2401, FE 2458 . 

Prionitis lyallii Harv. Attached to substrate, low intertidal; rare- 
occasion al /occasional; SA 2129 2143 , CP 2032 . 

Pterochondria woodii (Harv.) Hollenb. Fig. 25. Epiphytic on a variety 
of algae; occasional/rare; PB 2281 . 

Pterocladia capillacea (Gmel.) Born. & Thur. Attached to substrate, 
sometimes epiphytic, low intertidal or in pools; rare- 
abundant/occasional; UT 1946 , CP 2033 , CH 1791 , PB 2282 . 

Pterosiphonia baileyi (Harv.) Falk. Attached to substrate or epiphytic 
on a variety of algae, low-mid intertidal or in pools; rare- 
occasional /common; FC 1870 , UT 1956 , SA 2148 , CP 2073 , PB 2236 . 

Pterosiphonia dendroidea (Mont.) Falk. Fig. 26. Attached to substrate, 
epiphytic on a variety of algae or epizoic, low-mid intertidal or in 
pools; rare-occasional/common; WP 2515 , FC 1860 , UT 1906 , CP 2049 , CH 
1764 2388 , PO 2342 2346 , PB 2240 , PL 2446 . 

Ptilothamnionopsis lejolisea (Farl.) Dix. Epiphytic on articulations of 
coralline algae; rare/rare; PO 2328 . 



49 



Rhodoglossum aff ine (Harv.) Kyi. Attached to substrate, sometimes 
epiphytic, low-mid intertidal or in pools; rare-common/abundant; WP 2504 
2538 , FC 1833 , UT 1931 1933 1949 , SA 2125 , LA 2154 2168 2214 , CP 20207~P0~ 
2348 , CH T764 , PB 2248 , PL 24I8T 

Rhodymenia californica Kyi. Attached to substrate, low-mid intertidal or 
in pools; rare-common/common; WP 2519 , FC 1845 , SA 2130 , CP 2048 , 
PO 2366 , CH 2384 , PB 2296 , FE 2464 , CE 2370 . 

Rhodymenia pacifica Kyi. Attached to substrate, low intertidal; rare- 
occasTonaT/ occasional; SA 2132, PB 2297 . 

Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (Mortagne) Gabrielson. Attached to substrate, 
low-mid intertidal or in pools; rare-occasional /common; FC 1849 1850 , UT 
1894 , SA 2087 , CP 2014 , PO 2325 , PB 2275 . 

Schimmelmannia plumosa (Setch.) Abb. Attached to substrate, low 

intertidal; rare/occasional; WP 2565 , SA 2141 , CP 2042 . 

Schizymenia pacifica (Kyi.) Kyi. Attached to substrate, low intertidal; 
rare-occasional/occasional; WP 2499 2536 , CP 2015 , PO 2360 2362 . 

Scinaia confusa (Setch.) Huisman. Drift, washed up on shore; rare/rare; 
CH 2379 . 

Smithora naiadum (Anders.) Hollenb. Epiphytic on Phyllospadix ; 

occasional-abundant/common; FC 1832 , UT 1919 , SA 2078 , CP 2001 , PB 2T61T , 
PL 2406 . 

Sore! 1 a del i catul a (Gardn.) Hollenb. Epizoic on mussels; 
occasional/rare; PB 2234 . 

Tiffaniella snyderiae (Farl.) Abb. Attached to substrate in delicate 
turf or under Phyl lospadix , low intertidal or in pools; rare- 
common/occasional ;"~ FCT860869, UT 1905 , SA 2119 , PB 2221 2226 . 

Unidentified Alga. Fig. 28. Unidentifiable to genus; WP 2550 2554 2567 , 
FC 1856 , UT 1959 , SA 2092 2124 , LA 2189 2193 , CP 2047 7057 "2071 ~2"0T2 
2075T ~P0 2357~?361 , CH 1773 238"! 2385 2391 , PB 2224 2294 2303 , PL 2427 
2428" 2439 T4TT 



DIVISION ANGIOSPERMAE (Flowering Plants) 



Phyllospadix scouleri Hook. Attached to substrate, low intertidal or in 
pools; occasional-abundant/common; FC 1827 , UT 1918 , CP 2000 , PO 2306 , CH 
1792 , PB 2263 , PL 2405 . 

Phyl lospadix torreyi Wats. Attached to substrate, low intertidal or in 
pools; common/occasional; FC 1829, SA 2077, CH 1760. 



50 



APPENDIX II 

SELECTED MARINE ALGAE FROM SANTA CRUZ ISLAND 

Many of the algae collected during this study were small, 
filamentous species. Because algae of this type are difficult to collect 
or identify, they are frequently overlooked. Several hundred microsope 
slides of filamentous algae identified during this study are deposited in 
the UCSB Herbarium. We have selected 20 specimens for illustration to 
assist marine collectors with the proper identification of these small 
filamentous species. Descriptions that are provided in Marine Algae of 
California (Abbott and Hollenberg 1976), in conjunction with the photos 
and captions presented here, should help to identify these generally 
overlooked species. 



51 




Fig. 9. Antithamnion defectum Kyi. 




Fig. 10. Callithamnion rupicolum Anders. 



52 



Fig. 9. Antithamnion defectum Kyi. ERT 2411 . 

This red alga is characterized by opposite branching of the primary 
lateral branches and unilateral branching of the secondary lateral 
branches. Tetrasporangia (big arrow) are found in the axis of the 
secondary lateral branches. "Gland" cells (small arrow) are found on the 
end of the secondary lateral branches. It was an uncommon epiphyte or 
epizoic species on Santa Cruz Island. Scale bar = 150 u. 



Fig. 10. Call ithamnion rupicolum Anders. ERT 2253 . 

This red alga is characterized by alternate branching of the primary 
branches. Considerable variation in the branching pattern occurs toward 
the bases. Tetrasporangia (arrow) are borne in a series on the branches. 
It was a common mid-intertidal alga on Santa Cruz Island, and forms 
delicate tufts of "fuzz". Scale bar = 500 p. 



53 




Fig. 11. Centrocerus clavulatum (C. Ag.) Mont. 




ft!)iitt«ffi> 



Fig. 12. Ceramium californicum J. Ag. 



54 



Fig. 11. Centrocerus clavalatum (C. Ag.) Mont. ERT 2056 . 
This red alga is characterized by dichotomous branching, tips that are 
curved inward, a corticated surface and distinct spines (arrow) that 
project from the nodes. The presence of spines readily distinguishes 
this species from all members of the closely related genus Ceramium . 
This species was common on Santa Cruz Island and formed dense clumps of 
hair-like filaments to 10 centimeters long. Several species of 
Polysiphonia have identical growth habits and are easily confused with 
C. clavulatum. Scale bar = 500 p. 



Fig. 12. Ceramium californicum J. Ag. ERT 2143 . 

This red alga is characterized by dichotomous branching, slightly 
inwardly curved tips, and cortication that is predominately at the nodes; 
however, the cortication spreads yery close to the next cortical band. 
Tetrasporangia (arrow) are found embedded in the upper portions of the 
cortical bands. This alga was rare on Santa Cruz Island. Scale bar = 
500 p. 



55 




Fig. 13. Ceramium caudatum S. & G. 




Fig. 14. Ceramium eatonianum (Farl.) Detoni 



56 



Fig. 13. Ceramium caudatum S. & G. ERT 2283 . 

This red alga has a delicate, dichotomously branched thai 1 us with 
inwardly curved tips. It is distinguishable from other species of 
Ceramium by having cortication only at the nodes, with the lower cortical 
cells being considerably larger than the upper cortical cells. 
Tetrasporangia (arrow) project from the upper cortical cells. This alga 
was rare on Santa Cruz Island. Scale bar = 150 jj« 



Fig. 14. Ceramium eatonianum (Farl.) DeToni ERT 2145 . 
This red alga has dichotomous branching, but unlike most other species of 
Ceramium the tips have a slight outward curvature and the thai 1 us is 
completely corticated. The cortical cells are in distinct longitudinal 
rows and "gland" cells (small arrow) are present at the nodes. 
Tetrasporangia (big arrow) are embedded in the cortical tissue. This 
species was a common epiphyte on a variety of algae and the most common 
Ceramium species found on Santa Cruz Island. Scale bar = 500 y. 



57 




Fig. 15. Ectocarpus parvus (Saund.) Hollenb. 




Fig. 16. Erythrotrichia sp. 



58 



Fig. 15. Ectocarpus parvus (Saund.) Hollenb. ERT 2484. 
This brown alga was a very common epiphyte that formed dense, 1 cm long 
tufts on older blades of various kelps, including Eisenia , Laminaria , 
Halidrys , and Cystoseira . The filaments are uniseriate, sparsely 
branched, and bear numerous, corn-cob shaped, plurilocular sporangia 
(arrow). Scale bar = 150 y. 



Fig. 16. Erythrotrichia sp. ERT 1912 . 

This red alga is recognizable by a minute frond that is uniseriate near 
the base and monostromatic, but is 6-8 cells wide in the upper portions. 
It was found as an epiphyte on a variety of kelps and intermixed with the 
dense tuft of Ectocarpus parvus. Scale bar = 500 v. 



59 




Fig. 17. Hincksia granulosa (J. Smith) Silva. 




Fig. 18. Gymnothamnion elegans (C. Ag). J. Ag. 



60 



Fig. 17. Hincksia granulosa (J. Smith) Silva. [ Giffordia granulosa 
(J. Smith) Ham.] ERT 1852 . 

This brown alga is characterized by sub-opposite branching and 
plurilocular sporangia (arrow). The sporangia are sessile, ovoid and 
have a slight curvature to one side. This alga was found occasionally in 
sheltered pools, forming fine hair-like clumps several centimeters long. 
Scale bar = 150 y. 



Fig. 18. Gymnothamnion elegans (C. Ag.) J. Ag. ERJ_ 2233 . 
This red alga is a minute (5 mm), delicate, tufted thai 1 us. Lateral 
branching is opposite along the main axis, with secondary laterals 
usually absent. The most characteristic feature is the presence of 
tetrasporangia (arrow) on the tips of the lateral branches. This alga 
was rare on Santa Cruz Island. Scale bar = 150 y. 



61 




Fig. 19. Platythamnion recurvatum Woll. 




q>*SO^ 



Fig. 20 Pleonosporium vancouverianum (J. Ag.) J. Ag. 



62 



Fig. 19. Platyth amnion recurvatum Woll. ERT 1857 . 

This red alga has distinctly whorled branches with four lateral branches 
at each whorl. Secondary branching is unilateral and tetrasporangia 
(arrow) are borne on the secondary branches. This alga was rare on Santa 
Cruz Island. Scale bar = 150 y. 



Fig. 20. Pleonosporium vancouverianum (J.Ag.) J.Ag. ERT 1907 . 
This red alga is characterized by alternate branching on the primary and 
secondary laterals. The primary character for this genus is the presence 
of polysporangia instead of tetrasporangia. Species in the genus 
Callith amnion are very similiar and sometimes inseparable if no 
polysporangia are present. This alga was occasionally found as an 
epiphyte on coralline algae. Scale bar = 500 y. 



63 




Fig. 21. Polysiphonia hendryi Gardn. 






^^#^, 



it 




Fig. 22. Polysiphonia pacifica Hollenb. 



64 



Fig. 21. Polysiphonia hendryi Gardn. ERT 2144 . 

This red alga has polysiphonous construction consisting of 10-12 
pericentral cells. Hairs are usually present only at the tip. This 
common species is highly variable, but it is fairly large in size and 
densely branched. This species is similar to£. pacifica , but is readily 
distinguished by the number of pericentral cells. Scale bar = 500 u. 



Fig. 22. Polysiphonia pacifica Hollenb. ERT 2309 . 

This red alga has polysiphonous construction with four pericentral cells. 
The thai 1 us is usually densely branched in a fairly regular alternating 
pattern. Hairs are rarely present. This species is similar to _P. 
hendryi , but is distinguished by the number of pericentral cells. Scale 
bar = 500 u. 



65 




Fig. 23. Polysiphonia paniculata Mont. 




Fig. 24. Polysiphonia scopulorum var. villum (J. Ag.) Hollenb. 



66 



Fig. 23. Polysiphonia paniculata Mont. ERT 2190 . 

This red alga also has polysiphonous construction with 10-12 pericental 
cells. The thai 1 us is usually sparsely branched and has a limited 
prostrate axis. This species can be confused with _P_. scopulorum var. 
villum , which has a similar habit, but only four pericentral cells. 
Scale bar = 500 y. 



Fig. 24. Polysiphonia scopulorum var. villum (J.Ag.) Hollenb. ERT 2240 . 
This red alga has polysiphonous construction with four pericentral cells. 
The thallus has a distinct prostrate axis with a sparsely branched, erect 
axis. This specimen is producing soermatangial clusters (arrow). This 
species is \/ery similar to _P_. paniculata , but is readily separated by the 
number of pericentral cells. Scale bar = 500 y. 



67 




Fig. 25. Pterochondria woodii (Harv.) Hollenb. 




Fig. 26. Pterosiphonia dendroidea (Mont.) Falk. 



68 



Fig. 25. Pterochondria woodii (Harv.) Hollenb. ERT 2281 . 
This distinctive red alga has a strongly flattened, ribbon-like thai 1 us 
with 10-20 pericentral cells and an overall thai 1 us size reaching several 
centimeters. The branching pattern is more or less alternate. This 
species was an occasional epiphyte on Cystoseira. Scale bar = 500 y. 



Fig. 26. Pterosiphonia dendroidea (Mont.) Falk. ERT 2446 . 
This common red alga has a polysiphonous-type construction with alternate 
distichous branching with an overall thallus size of several centimeters. 
The lateral branches have a slight inward curvature. This species was 
found typically as an epiphyte on a variety of algae, but was also 
saxicolous. Scale bar = 500 y. 



69 




Fig. 27. Sphacelaria didichotoma Saund. 




Fig. 28. Unidentified alga. 



70 



Fig. 27. Sphacelaria didichotoma Saund. ERT 2073 . 

This brown alga has a prominent apical cell and multi seriate axis that is 
superficially similar to the red algal genus Polysiphonia . This species 
is sparsely branched and bears vegetative propagules (arrow) that are 
slender and characteristically bifurcate. This alga was found as an 
epiphyte on Sargassum. Scale bar = 150 y. 



Fig. 28. Unidentified alga. ERT 2246 . 

This ceramiacious red alga has alternate branching with the cells of the 
lateral branches smaller than those of the main axis. Secondary laterals 
are rarely present. Near the apex, bisporangia (arrow) are produced on 
short determinate lateral branches. This rare alga was found attached to 
rocks in the mid-intertidal zone intermixed in dense algal turf. It was 
small (2-5 mm) and only a few specimens were found. It appears to be 
similar to Callithamniella , but is different from all known species 
because of the presence of bisporangia. Scale bar = 50 y. 



71 



APPENDIX III 

CHECKLIST OF MARINE MACROPHYTES REPORTED FROM SANTA CRUZ ISLAND 

The following species list encompasses known published information 
regarding the marine macrophytes of Santa Cruz Island. A previous list 
completed by Murray (1974) surveyed the early literature, and is included 
herein. Many of the recent reports are from Littler (1978, 1979) and Apt 
et al . (1988). Included for each species are scientific name, general 
distribution (W = widespread, N = northern, S = southern), occurrence in 
the intertidal (I), subtidal (S) or both, and reference number(s) for the 
published record(s) that are listed at the end. Synonyms are listed in 
brackets. Question marks following a name indicate that some question 
was indicated by the reporting author regarding the identification. 
Figure numbers refer to photographs of algae in Appendix II. The 
arrangement is by division with the Chlorophyta (green alqae) first, 
followed by Phaeophyta (brown algae), Rhodophyta (red algae), and 
Angiospermae (flowering plants). Genera are alphabetical within each 
division. A total of 280 taxa of marine macrophytes have been reported 
from Santa Cruz Island: 23 greens, 42 browns, 212 reds, and 3 
angiosperms. Thirty-three taxa of the total were identified only to 
genus. 



73 



CHECKLIST OF MARINE MACROPHYTES 



DIVISION CHLOROPHYTA (Green Algae) 



Bryopsis corticulans Setch. 

Bryopsis hypnoides Lamour. 

Chaetomorpha linum (Mill 1 . )KUtz. 

Chaetomorpha spiralis Ok am. 

Cladophora sp. 

Cladophora albida (Huds.)Kutz. 

CI adophora columbiana Coll . 
LC trichotoma S.& G.] 

CI adophora qraminea Coll . 

Cladophora hutchinsiae (Dillwyn) KUtz. [?] 

Codium cuneatum S.& G. 

Codium fragile (Sur.)Har. 

Codium hubbsii Daws. 

Codium johnstonei Silva 

Codium setchellii Gardn. 

Derbesia marina (Lyngb.)Sol. 
L Halocy'stis oval is (Lyngb.) Aresch.] 

Enteromorpha sp. 

Enteromorpha compressa (L.)Grev. 

Enteromorpha flexuosa (Roth)J.Ag. 
LE. tubuTosa KUtz. J 

Prasiola meridionalis S.& G. 

Ulva sp. 

Ulva californica Wille 



w 


i.s 


3,9,13,14, 
15 


w 




3,13 


w 




3,13,14 


s 




13,14 


- 


i.s 


3,14,16 


w 


1 » 


3 


w 


i.s 


3,13,14 


w 


i.s 


3,9,10,15 


- 




16 


s 




2,15,17 


w 


i.s 


3,13,14,15 
16,17 


s 




13 


s 




2,15,16 


w 




3 


w 




3 


- 




3,14 


w 




14 


w 




13 


N 




2,15,18 




5 


16 


s 




3,13,14 



74 



Ulva lobata (KUtz.) S.& G. W I,S 3,9,13,14 

Ulva taeniata (Setch.) S.& G. N I 3 

DIVISION PHEAOPHYTA (Brown Algae) 

Acinetospora sp. 

Agarum fimbriatum Harv. 

Colpomenia peregrina (Sauv.)Ham. 

Colpomenia sinuosa (Roth)Derb.& Sol. 

Cylindrocarpus rugosus Okam. 
L Petrospongium rugosum (Okam.)S.& G.] 

Cystoseira sp. 

Cystoseira neglecta S.& G. 

Cystoseira osmundacea (Turn.)C.Ag. 

Desmarestia ligulata (Lightf . )Lamour. 
LP. herbacea (Turn.) L amour.] 

Dictyoneuropsis reticulata (Saund. )Smith 

Dictyopteris johnstonei Gardn. 

Dictyopteris undulata Holmes 
|_P. zonarioides Far low] 

Pictyota binghamiae J.Ag. 

Pictyota flabellata (Col 1 . )S.& G. 

Ectocarpus sp. 

Ectocarpus parvus (Saund. )Hollenb. 
[E. pygrnaeus] Fig. 15. 

Egregia menziesii (Turn. )Aresch. 

Eisenia arborea Aresch. 

Endarachne binghamiae J.Ag. 

Feldmannia cylindrica (Saund. )Holl .& Abb. W 



75 



- 


s 


16 


N 


s 


15,16 


N 


s 


10 


S 


I 


3,13,14 


W 


I 


13,14 


- 


I 


16 


S 


I 


13 


w 


i.s 


3,9,10,14 


w 


i.s 


3,14,15,16 


N 


I 


15,18 


s 


I 


4,14,18 


s 


i.s 


3,13,14,15 
16 


w 


i.s 


3,15,16 


s 


I 


3,13,14 


- 


I 


13 


w 


i.s 


3,16 


w 


i.s 


3,9,13,14, 
15,16,18 


w 


i.s 


3,10,13,14 
15,16 


s 


I 


3,13,14 


w 


I 


15,16 



Hal idrys dioica Gardn. 

Hapterophycus canal iculatus S.& G. 

Hesperophycus harveyanus (Decne.)S.& G. 

Hincksia granulosa (J.E.Smith)Silva 
L Giffordia granulosa (J.E.Smith) Ham.] 
Fig. 17 

Hincksia mitchel lae ( H arv . ) S i 1 v a 
L Giffordia mitchellae (Harv.) Ham.] 

Laminaria farlowii Setch. 

L ami n aria setchellii S i 1 v a 
LL. denFigera Kjellm.] 

Leathesia difformis (L.)Aresch. 

Macrocystis pyrifera (L.)C.Ag. 

Pachydictyon coriaceum (Holmes)Okam. 

Pelagophycus porra (Lem. )Setch. 

Pelvetia fastigiata (J.Ag. )DeToni 

Petalonia fascia (Mull.)KUntz. 

Pseudol ithoderma nigra Hoi lenb. 

Ralfsia sp. 

Sargassum muticum (Yendo)Fensh. 

Sargassum palmeri Grun. 

Scytosiphon dotyi Wynne 

Scytosiphon lomentaria ( Lyngb . ) J . Ag . 

Sphacelaria didichotoma Saund. Fig. 27, 

Taonia lennebackerae J.Ag. 

Zonaria farlowii S.& G. 



s 


I. 


s 


3,10,13,14 
15,16 


s 


I 




13,14 


w 


I 




3,14,15 


w 


I 




3 



w 
w 
w 
s 

w 
s 
w 
w 
w 
s 
s 



10 



,S 3,9,10,14, 
15,16 



3,18 



,S 3,9,10,13, 
14,15,16 

,S 3,9,13,15, 
16 

15,16 

3,13,14 

3,13,14 

4,13,14 

13 

3,14 

15,16 

3,13,14 

3,13,14 

3 

S 3,9,15,16 

I,S 3,9,10,14 



76 



DIVISION RHODOPHYTA (Red Algae) 

Acrochaetium sp. 

Acrochaetium tenuissimum (Coll . )Papenf . 
Acrochaetium thuretii (Born. )Col 1 .& Herv. 
Acrosorium uncinatum (Turn.)Kyl. 

Ahnfeltia sp. 

Ahnfeltia plicata (Huds.)Fries 

Amplisiphonia pacifica Hollenb. 

Amphiroa zonata Yendo 

Anisocladella pacifica Kyi . 

Antithamnion defectum Kyi. Fig. 9. 
LA. pygmaeum Gardn.J 

Asterocolax gardneri (Setch. )Feldm.& Feldm. W 

Bangia fusco-purpurea (Dillw.) Lyngb. 

Bonnemaisonia h ami f era Harv. 

Bossiella sp. 

Bossiella californica (Dec.)Silva 
LB. pachyclada Taylor] 

Bossiella chiloensis (Dec. )Johans. 
L Bossea~sagittata Daws.& Silva] 
[ Bossea insularis Daws.& Silva] 

Bossiel la orbigniana 

ssp. orbigniana (Dec.)Silva 
ssp. dichotoma(Manza) Johans. 
[ Bossea cooperi Daws.& Silva] 

Botryocladia pseudodichotoma (Farl.)Kyl. 

Calliarthron cheilosporioides Manza 

Calliarthron regenerans Manza 

Calliarthron tuberculosum (Post.&Rupr. )Daws. W 

Call ith amnion biseriatum Kyi. 



77 



- 


I, 


,s 


3,16 


s 






15 


s 






2 


s 


I, 


s 


3,10,14, 
15,16 


- 


s 




16 


w 


I 




3 


w 


I 




3 


s 


I 




3,13,14 


w 


I 




3 


w 


I, 


s 


3,15,16 


w 


I 




3 


w 


I 




3,14 


s 






2,5,15 


- 


I 




3 


w 


I 




2,3,12,15 


N 


I 




3,12,15 



W 


s 

I 


9,10,16 
3,13,14 


W 


s 


10,15,16 


W 


s 


9,10 


- 




18 


w 

w 


I 


3,13,14,15 
2,15 



Cal 1 ithamnion pikeanum Harv. 

Callith amnion rupicolum Anders. Fig. 10. 

Callophyllis sp. 

Cal 1 ophyl lis flabellulata Harv. 

Callophyllis heanophylla Setch. 

Callophyllis stenophylla Setch. 

Callophyllis violacea J.Ag. 

Carpopeltis bushiae (Farl.)Kyl. 

Carpopeltis divaricata [?] 

Centroceras clavulatum (C.Ag.) Mont. 
Fig. 11. 

Ceramium sp. 

Ceramium cal ifornicum J.Ag. Fig. 12. 

Ceramium caudatum S. & G. Fig. 13. 

Ceramium cod i col a J.Ag. 

Ceramium eatonianum (Farl . )DeToni. Fig. 14. W 

Ceramium gardneri Kyi . 

Ceramium pacificum (Coll.)Kyl. 

Ceramium personatum S. & G. 

Ceramium procumbens S. & G. 

Ceramium sinicola S. & G. 

Ceramium viscainoense Daws. 

Ceramium zacae S.& G. 

Chondria cal ifornica (Col 1 . )Kyl . 

Corallina sp. I 3 

Coral 1 ina officinal is 

var. chilensis (Dec.)KUtz. W I,S 3,10,13,14 



N 


I 




3 


S 


I 




3,14 


- 


I 




3 


w 


s 




15,16 


N 


s 




9,15,16 


- 






4 


W 


I, 


s 


3,13,15,16 


s 


I 




13,14 


- 


I 




13,14 


s 


I 




3 


- 


I, 


,s 


3,13,14,16 


w 


I 




3 


s 


I 




3 


w 


I, 


,s 


3,14,15,16 


w 


I, 


s 


3,13,14 


N 


s 




9,15,16 


W 


s 




15,16 


- 


s 




16 


s 


s 




2,15,16 


s 


I. 


,s 


3,14,15,16 


- 


I 




13,14 


w 


I 




13 


s 


I, 


s 


2,3,13,14, 
15,16 



78 



Coral 1 i na pinnatifolia (Manza)Daws. 
Coral 1 ina vancouveriensis Yendo 
Cryptonemia angustata (S. & G.)Daws. 
Cryptonemia boreal is Kyi . 
Cryptonemia obovata J. Ag. 
Cryptopleura sp. 

Cryptopleura coral linara (Nott. )Gardn. 
Cryptopleura crispa Kyi . 
Cryptopleura imbricata Daws. (?) 
Cryptopleura lobulifera (J.Ag.)Kyl. 

Cryptopleura violacea ( J . Ag . ) Kyi . 

Cumagloia andersonii (Farl.)S.& G. 

Dasya sinicola (S.& G.)Daws. 

Dermatol ithon sp. 

Endocladia muricata (Post.& Rupr.)J.Ag. 

Erythrocystis saccata (J.Ag.)Silva 

Erytrotrichia sp. Fig. 16. 

Farlowia conferta (Setch. )Abb. 

Fauchea sp. 

Fauchea laciniata J.Ag. 

Fosliella hubbsii Daws. [?] 

Gastroclonium subart i cul at urn ( Turner )KUtz. 
LG. coulteri (Harv.)Kyl.J 

Gel idiocolax mammilata Fan & Papenf . 

Gelidium sp. 

Gelidium coulteri Harv. 

Gelidium nudifrons Gardn. 



79 



s 




5 


w 


I 


3,13,14 


w 


I 


15,16 


w 


s 


15,16 


w 


s 


15,16 


- 


I 


3 


w 


i.s 


3,13,15,16 


s 


I.S 


13,14,15,16 


- 




7 


w 


I 


3,4,13,14, 
15 


w 


I 


3 


w 


I 


3,13,14 


s 


s 


9 


- 


s 


16 


w 


I 


3,13,14 


w 


I 


3,13,14 


- 


I 


3 


N 


I 


3 


- 


s 


16 


w 


I.S 


3,9,10 


- 




4 


w 


I 


3,13,14 


s 


s 


15,16 


- 


s 


16 


w 


I 


3,13,14 


s 


I.S 


3,10 



Gel idium purpurascens Gardn. 

Gelidium pusillum (Stackh.) Le Jol 

Gel idium robustum (Gardn.) Hollenb. & Abb. W 

Gigartina sp. 

Gigartina canaliculata Harv. 

Gigartina corymbifera (KUtz.) J. Ag. 

Gigartina exasperata Harv. & Bail. 

Gigartina harveyana (KUtz.) S. & G. 

Gigartina leptorhynchos J. Ag. 

Gigartina spinosa (KUtz.) Harv. 
[G. arm at a J.Ag.] 

Gigartina volans (C.Ag.) J. Ag. 

Gloiosiphonia sp. 

Goniotrichum sp. 

Gracilaria sp. 

Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Bory.) W. Boss. 
1_G. sjoestedtii Kyi .J 

Gracilaria pacifica Abb. 
[_G. verrucosa (Huds.)Papenf .] 

Gracilaria papenfussii Abb. 
1_G. andersonii (Grun.) Kyi . ] 

Gracil aria robusta Setch. 

Gracilariophila oryzoides Setch. & Wils. 

Grateloupia sp. 

Grateloupia doryphora (Mont.) Howe 

Grateloupia prolongata J. Ag. 

Gymnogongrus sp. 

Gymnogongrus leptophyllus J. Ag. 

Gymnogongrus pi atyphyl lus Gardn. 



80 



w 


I 


3,13,14 


w 


I 


3,13 


w 


i.s 


3,9,10,13 
14,15,16 


- 


s 


10,16 


w 


I 


3,13,14 


w 


s 


10 


w 


I 


3 


w 


I,S 


3,13,14,15,16 


s 


I 


3,13,14 


s 


i.s 


3,13,14,15 


w 


I 


3 


- 


I 


13 


- 


s 


16 


- 


s 


16 


w 


s 


15,16 


w 


I 


3 


s 


I 


3,13,14 


N 


s 


2,15,16 


w 


I 


3 


- 


I 


13,14 


w 


I 


3,14 


s 


I 


13 


- 


I 


3,16 


w 


I 


3 


w 


i.s 


3,14,15,16 



Gymnothamnion elegans (C.Ag.)J.Ag. Fig. 18. 
Haematocelis zonal is Daws.& Neush. 
Haliptylon gracile (Lamour. )Johans. 
Halymenia californica Smith & Hollenb. 
Halymenia hollenbergii Abb. 
Herposiphonia sp. 
Herposiphonia littoral is Hollenb. 
Herposiphonia plumosa [?] 
Herposiphonia plumula ( J.Ag. )Hollenb. 

Herposiphoni a tenel 1 a 

f. secunda (C.Ag.) Hollenb. 

Herposiphonia verticil lata (Harv.)Kyl. 

Heterosiphonia erecta Gardn. 

Heterosiphonia japonica Yendo 
LH. densiuscula Kyi .J 

Holmesia californica (Daws.)Daws. 

Hydro! ithon decipiens (Fosl . )Adey 

Hypnea valentiae (Turn.) Mont. 

Iridaea cordata (Turn.)Bory. 

Iridaea flaccida (S. & G.) Silva 

Iridaea heterocarpa Post.& Rupr. 

Iridaea lineare (S. & G.) Kyi. 

Janczewskia gardneri Setch.& Guerns. 

Jania tenella (Ktitz.)Grun. 

Kallymenia pacifica Kyi . 

Laurencia sp. 

Laurencia lajolla Daws. 



s 


I 


3 


s 




2,15 


s 


I 


3,5,15 


w 


s 


15,16 


s 


s 


1,2,15 


- 


i.s 


16 


s 


I 


13,14 


- 


s 


16 


w 


i.s 


3,9,10,13 
14,15 


s 


I 


13 


w 


I 


3,13,15 


w 


i.s 


3,15,16 


w 


s 


15,16 


w 




7 


w 




13 


s 




3 


w 




3,13,14 


w 




3 


N 




3 


N 




3 


W 


i.s 


3,15,16 


S 




13 


s 




15,16 


- 




3 


s 




3,13 



81 



Laurencia masonii S.& G. 
Laurencia pacif ica Kyi . 
Laurencia sinicola S.& G. 
Laurencia spectabilis Post.& Rupr. 
Laurencia splendens Hollenb. 

Laurencia subopposita (J.Ag. )Setch. 
Leptocladia binghamiae J.Ag. 
Lithophyl lum proboscideum (Fosl.)Fosl. 
Lithothamnium volcanum Daws. 
Lithothrix aspergillum Gray 

Mastocarpus papillatus (C.Ag.) J. Ag. 
[ Gigartfna papillata (C.Ag.) J. Ag.] 

Melobesia mediocris (Fosl . )Setch.& Mason 

Microcladia coulteri Harv. 

Murrayellopsis dawsonii Post. 

Myriogramme caespitosa Daws. 

Nemalion helminthoides (Vell.)Batt. 

Neoptilota hypnoides (Harv.) Kyi. 

Nienburgia andersoniana (J.Ag.) Kyi. 



Nitophyllum hollenbergii (Kyl.)Abb. 
L Myriogramme hoi lenbergii Kyi . ] 



s 




13,14 


w 




3,13,14 


s 




2,14,15 


w 


i.s 


3,9,13,14 


w 


i.s 


3,13,14,15 
16 


w 




13 


s 


i.s 


3,16 


w 




13 


s 




2,6,15 


w 


i.s 


3,9,10,13, 
14,15,16 



w 



Odonthal ia f loccosa (Esp.)Falk. N 

Ophidocladus simpl iciusculus (Cr.& Cr.)Falk. S 
Opuntiella californica (Farl.)Kyl. W 
Petrocelis franciscana S.& G. W 

W 
N 



Petrocelis middendorff ii 



3,13,14 



w 


I 3,13,14 


w 


I 3,13,14 


w 


S 15,16 


s 


2,15 


w 


I 3,13,14 


N 


I 3 


W 


I,S 3,9,10,14, 
15,16 



Peyssonelia meridional is Hollenb. & Abb. 



15,16 

3 

13 

10 

13 

14 

15,16 



82 



Peyssonnelia sp. 

Phycodrys sp. 

Phycodrys isabelliae R.Norr.& Wynne 

Phycodrys profunda Daws. 

Phycodrys setchellii Skottsb. 

Phycodrys simplex Daws. 

Phyllophora sp. [?] 

Platysiphonia clevelandii (Farl . )Papenf . 

PI atyth amnion sp. 

Platythamnion heteromorphum (J.Ag.)J.Ag. 

PI atyth amnion pectinatum Kyi . 

Platythamnion recurvatum Woll. Fig. 19. 

Platythamnion villosum Kyi . 

Pleonosporium vancouverianum ( J . Ag . ) J . Ag . 
Fig. 20. 

Plocamium cartilagineum (L.)Dix. 
LP. cocci neum var. pacificum (Kyi.) Daws.] 

Plocamium violaceum Farl . 

Pogonophorella californica (J.Ag.)Silva 

Polyneura latissima (Harv.)Kyl. 

Polysiphonia sp. 

Polysiphonia acuminata Gardn. 

Polysiphonia brodiaei (Dillw.) Spreng. 

Polysiphonia flaccidissima Hollenb. 

Polysiphonia hendryi Gard. Fig. 21. 

Polysiphonia pacifica Hollenbg. 

var. delicatula Hollenbg. Fig. 22. 

Polysiphonia paniculata Mont. Fig. 23 



- 


I 


13 


- 


s 


16 


N 


s 


2,15 


W 




15 


W 


I 


14,15 


- 


s 


16 


- 


s 


16 


w 


s 


15,16 


- 


s 


16 


w 




15 


w 


s 


15,16 


N 


I 


3 


w 


s 


9 


WD 


i.s 


3,9,15 


WD 


i.s 


3,10,13, 
15,16 


WD 


I 


3,13,14 


W 


I 


3 


W 


s 


15,16 


- 


i.s 


3,13,14,16 


w 


I 


3,13,14,15 


N 


I 


3 


S 


I 


13 


w 


I 


3,13,14 


w 


i.s 


3,9,16 
15 


w 


i.s 


3,15,16 



83 



Polysiphoni a savatieri Harv. 

Polysiphonia scopulorum 

var. villum (J. Ag. ) Hoi lenb. Fig. 24. 

Polysiphonia s i mp 1 ex Hollenb. 

Porphyra perforata J.Ag. 

Porphyrella californica Hollenb. 

Prionitis austral is (J.Ag.) J.Ag. 

Prionitis cornea (Okam. )Daws. 

Prionitis lanceol ata (Harv.) Harv. 

Prionitis lyal lii Harv. 

Pseudol ithoderma nigra Hoi 1 enb. 

Pterochondria woodii (Harv. )Hollenb. 
Fig. 25. 

Pterocladia sp. 

Pterocladia calloglossoides (Howe)Daws. 

Pterocladia capillacea (Gmel . )Born.& Thur, 
LP. pyramidale (Gardn. ) D aws . ] 

Pterosiphonia baileyi (Harv.)Falk. 

Pterosiphonia dendroidea (Mont.)Falk. 
Fig. 26. 

Ptilothamnionopsis lejolisea (Farl.)Dix 

Pugetia fragil issima Kyi . 

Rhodoglossum affine (Harv.) Kyi. 

Rhodoglossum cal ifornicum (J.Ag.)Abb. 
|_R. americanium Kyi . J 

Rhodoptilum plumosum (Harv.& Bail.)Kyl. 
LR. densum (Smith )Daws . ] 

Rhodymenia sp. 

Rhodymenia arboresens Daws. 



w 




3 


w 




3 


s 




3,13 


w 




3,13,14 


s 




2,11,15 


N 


s 


16 


S 




13 


w 




3,13,14 


w 




3 


s 




13 


w 


US 


3,15,16 


- 


s 


16 


s 


s 


15,16 


s 


i.s 


3,9,13,15, 
16 


w 


i.s 


3,13,14,15, 
16 


w 


i.s 


3,9,10,13, 
14,15 


w 


I 


3 


N 


I 


15,16 


W 


I 


3,13,14 


w 


s 


16 


w 


s 


15,16 


- 


s 


16 


s 


s 


15 



84 



w 


I,S 


3,9,10,14, 
16 


w 


I,S 


3,10,13,14 
15,16 


w 


s 


15,16 


w 


s 


2,15,16 


w 


I,S 
16 


3,9,14,15, 



Rhodymenia cal ifornica Kyi . 
Rhodymenia pacifica Kyi . 

Rhodymenia rhizoides Daws. 

Sarcodiotheca furcata (S.& G.)Kyl. 
L$. tenuis j 

Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (Mont.) Gabriel. W 
L Agardhiella coulteri (Harv . ) Setch . ] 
[ Agardhiel la tenera Daws.] 
[ Neoagardhiella baileyi (KUtz. ) Wynne & Tayl.] 

Scagelia pylaisaei (Mont.) Wynne W S 15,16 

1_S. occidentale ~TKy1 .) Wo 1 1 . 1 
[ Ant ith amnion occidentale Kyi . ] 

Schimmelmannia plumosa (Setch. )Abb. 

Schizymenia dawsonii Abb. 

Schizymenia pacifica (Kyi . )Kyl . 

Scinaia confusa (Setch.) Huisman 
L GIoiophloea confusa Setch.] 
[ Pseudogloiophloea confusa (Setch.) Levr.] 

Smithora naiadum (Anders. )Hollenb. 
|_ Porphy"ra naiadum Anders.] 

Sorella delicatula (Gardn. )Hollenb. 

Sorel la pinnata Hollenb. 

Stenogramma interrupta (C.Ag.)Mont. 

Tenarea canescens (Foslie)Adey 
L Dermatol ithon canescens ] ID. questioned by (2) 

Tenarea dispar (Fosl.)Adey 

Tiffaniella snyderiae (Farl.)Abb. 



Weeksia templetonii S. & G. S S 5,15 

L Halymeni a templetoni i S. & G.)Abb.] 



N 


I 


3 


S 


s 


10 


w 


I 


3,14 


w 


I 


3 


w 


I,S 


3,5,14,15, 
16 


w 


I 


3 


s 




15 


w 


s 


15,16 


(2) 




6 


w 


I 


13 


w 


I,S 


3,9,10,14, 
15,16 



85 



DIVISION ANGIOSPERMAE (Flowering Plants) 



Phyllospadix scouleri Hook. 
Phyllospadix torreyi Wats. 
Zostera marina L. 



w 


I 


3,13,14 


w 


I 


3 


w 


s 


16 



REFERENCES FOR APPENDIX III 



1) Abbott, I. A. 1967. Studies on some foliose red algae of the 

Pacific coast. I. Cryptonemiaceae. J. Phycol . 3:139-149. 

2) Abbott, I. A. and G. J. Hollenberg. 1976. Marine Red Algae of 

California. Stanford Press, Stanford, CA. 

3) Apt, K. E., C. D'Antonio, J. Crisp, and J. Gauvain. 1988. This 

Study. 

4) Dawson, E. Y. 1949. Contributions toward a marine flora of the 

southern California Channel Is., I— I II. Allan Hancock Foundation 
Publ. Occ. Pap., 8:1-57. 

5) Dawson, E. Y. 1953. Marine red algae of Pacific Mexico. 

I. Bangiales to Coral 1 inaceae subf. Coral linoideae. Allan Hancock 
Foundation Publ. Occ. Pap., 17:1-239. 

6) Dawson, E. Y. 1960. Marine red algae of Pacific Mexico. 

III. Cryptonemiales, Coral 1 inaceae subf. Melobesioideae. Pacific 
Naturalist. 2:1-125. 

7) Dawson, E. Y. 1962. Marine red algae of Pacific Mexico. 

VII. Ceramiales: Cerameaceae, Delesseriaceae. Allan Hancock 
Pacific Expeditions 26:1-207. 

8) Dawson, E. Y. 1963. Marine red algae of Pacific Mexico. 

VIII. Ceramiales: Dasyaceae, Rhodomel aceae. Nova Hedwigia 6:401- 
481. 

9) Foster, M. S. 1975. Regulation of algal community development in a 

Macrocystis pyrifera forest. Mar. Biol. 32:331-342. 

10) Foster, M. S. 1975. Algal succession in a Macrocystis pyrifera 

forest. Mar. Biol. 32:313-329. 

11) Hollenberg, G. J. 1945. New marine algae from Southern California. 

III. Amer. J. Bot. 32:447-451. 



86 



12) Johansen, H. W. 1971. Bossiella , a genus of articulated coral ine 

(Rhodophyceae, Cryptonemiales) in the eastern Pacific. Phycologia 
10:381-396. 

13) Littler, M. M. (ed.) 1978. The Annual and Seasonal Ecology of 

Southern California Subtidal, Rocky Intertidal and Tidepool Biotas. 
Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of the Interior, 
Washington, DC. 

14) Littler, M. M. (ed.) 1979. The Distribution, Abundance and 

Community Structure of Rocky Intertidal Biotas in the Southern 
California Bight. Bureau of Land Mangement, U.S. Department of the 
Interior, Washington, DC. 

15) Murray, S. N. 1974. Benthic algae and grasses, pp. 9.1-9.61. In, 

M.D. Daily, B. Hill & N. Lansing, eds., A Summary of Knowledge of 
the Southern California Coastal Zone and Offshore Areas. Vol. II., 
Biological Environment. Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department 
of the Interior, Washington, DC. 

16) Nicholson, N. L. and R. L. Cimberg. 1971. The Santa Barbara oil 

spills of 1969: a post spill survey of the rocky intertidal. 
pp. 325-399. In, D. Stranghan, ed., Biological and Oceanographical 
Survey of the Santa Barbara Channel Oil Spill. 1969-1970," Vol . I. 
Allan Hancock Foundation, U.S.C. Los Angeles, CA. 

17) Silva, P. C. 1951. The genus C odium in California with observations 

on the structure of the walls of the utricals. Univ. Calif. Publ . 
Bot. 25:79-114. 

18) Silva, P. C. 1957. Notes on Pacific marine algae. Madrono 

14:41-80. 



87 



UCSB Herbarium Publication Series 



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Orr, B. K. 1981. A flora of Valentine Eastern Sierra Reserve, Part II: Sierra Nevada Aquatic Research Laboratory. 
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Fletcher, M. 1983. A flora of Hollister Ranch, Santa Barbara County, California. The Herbarium, Department 
of Biological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, Publication No. 2. 77 p. 

Ferren, W. R., Jr., H. C. Forbes, D. A. Roberts, and D. M. Smith. 1984. The botanical resources of La Purisima 
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Ferren, W. R., Jr., 1985. Carpinteria Salt Marsh: Environment, history and botanical resources of a southern 
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Magney, D. L. 1986. A flora of Dry Lakes Ridge, Ventura County, California. The Herbarium, Department 
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Apt. K., C. D'Antonio, J. Crisp, and J. Gauvain. 1988. Intertidal macrophytes of Santa Cruz Island, California. 
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